Author + information
- Received July 30, 2017
- Revision received September 15, 2017
- Accepted September 18, 2017
- Published online October 30, 2017.
- aDepartment of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- bDepartment of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- cThrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Jeffrey I. Weitz, Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, McMaster University, 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8L 2X2, Canada.
D-dimer is a soluble fibrin degradation product that results from ordered breakdown of thrombi by the fibrinolytic system. Numerous studies have shown that D-dimer serves as a valuable marker of activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Consequently, D-dimer has been extensively investigated for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is used routinely for this indication. In addition, D-dimer has been evaluated for determining the optimal duration of anticoagulation in VTE patients, for diagnosing and monitoring disseminated intravascular coagulation, and as an aid in the identification of medical patients at high risk for VTE. Thus, quantification of D-dimer levels serves an important role in guiding therapy. This review: 1) describes how D-dimer is generated; 2) reviews the assays used for its detection; and 3) discusses the role of D-dimer determination in these various conditions.
- deep-vein thrombosis
- disseminated intravascular coagulation
- pulmonary embolism
- venous thromboembolism
Dr. Weitz has been a consultant for and received honoraria from Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi-Sankyo, Janssen, Ionis, Novartis, Merck, Pfizer, and Portola. Dr. Eikelboom has received honoraria or research support from Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb/Pfizer, Daiichi-Sankyo, Janssen, Sanofi, and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr. Fredenburgh has reported that he has no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received July 30, 2017.
- Revision received September 15, 2017.
- Accepted September 18, 2017.
- Central Illustration
- Generation of D-Dimer
- D-Dimer Assays
- D-Dimer for Diagnosis of VTE
- D-Dimer for Determining the Optimal Duration of Anticoagulation Therapy in VTE Patients
- D-Dimer in Cancer Patients
- D-Dimer in Medically Ill Patients
- D-Dimer and DIC
- D-Dimer and Other Disorders