Author + information
- Received June 13, 2017
- Accepted June 20, 2017
- Published online August 14, 2017.
- Bo Xi, MDa,∗ (, )
- Sreenivas P. Veeranki, MD, DrPHb,
- Min Zhao, MDc,
- Chuanwei Ma, MSa,
- Yinkun Yan, MDd and
- Jie Mi, MDd,∗∗ ()
- aDepartment of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China
- bDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas
- cDepartment of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China
- dDepartment of Epidemiology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Bo Xi, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, People’s Republic of China.
- ↵∗∗Dr. Jie Mi, Department of Epidemiology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, 2 Yabao Road, Beijing 10020, People’s Republic of China.
Background Previous studies have revealed inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality.
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and CVD in U.S. adults.
Methods Data were obtained by linking 13 waves of the National Health Interview Surveys (1997 to 2009) to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2011. A total of 333,247 participants ≥18 years of age were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption patterns were categorized into 6 groups: lifetime abstainers; lifetime infrequent drinkers; former drinkers; and current light, moderate, or heavy drinkers. Secondary exposure included participants’ binge-drinking status. The main outcome was all-cause, cancer, or CVD mortality.
Results After a median follow-up of 8.2 years (2.7 million person-years), 34,754 participants died of all causes (including 8,947 CVD deaths and 8,427 cancer deaths). Compared with lifetime abstainers, those who were light or moderate alcohol consumers were at a reduced risk of mortality for all causes (light—hazard ratio [HR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.82; moderate—HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.82) and CVD (light—HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.80; moderate—HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.78), respectively. In contrast, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.19) and cancer (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.42) in adults with heavy alcohol consumption. Binge drinking ≥1 d/week was also associated with an increased risk of mortality for all causes (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.23) and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.41).
Conclusions Light and moderate alcohol intake might have a protective effect on all-cause and CVD-specific mortality in U.S. adults. Heavy or binge drinking was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality.
This work was partially supported by the Young Scholars Program of Shandong University (2015WLJH51). The sponsor had no role in the study design, survey process, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received June 13, 2017.
- Accepted June 20, 2017.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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