Author + information
- Received February 15, 2018
- Revision received August 7, 2018
- Accepted August 8, 2018
- Published online September 17, 2018.
- Carl J. Lavie, MDa,∗ (, )
- Deepika Laddu, PhDb,
- Ross Arena, PhD, PTb,
- Francisco B. Ortega, PhDc,
- Martin A. Alpert, MDd and
- Robert F. Kushner, MDe
- aJohn Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School—The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana
- bDepartment of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- cPROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity” Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
- dDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri
- eNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Carl J. Lavie, Medical Director, Cardiac Rehabilitation, Director, Exercise Laboratories, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121-2483.
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic levels in the United States and worldwide, and this has contributed to substantial cardiovascular and other health risks. However, controversy exists concerning the causes of obesity and effective modalities for its prevention and treatment. There is also controversy related to the concept of metabolically healthy obesity phenotype, the “obesity paradox,” and on the importance of fitness to protect individuals who are overweight or obese from cardiovascular diseases. In this state-of-the-art review, the authors focus on “healthy weight” with the emphasis on the pathophysiologic effects of weight gain on the cardiovascular system; mechanistic/triggering factors; and the role of preventive actions through personal, education/environment, and societal/authoritative factors, as well as factors to provide guidance for caregivers of health promotion. Additionally, the authors briefly review metabolically healthy obesity, the obesity paradox, and issues beyond lifestyle consideration for weight loss with medications and bariatric surgery.
Dr. Ortega receives support for research activity from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER (DEP2016-79512-R); additional funding from the University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigación 2016, Excellence actions: Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES); and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 667302. Dr. Kushner has served on the advisory board for Novo Nordisk, Weight Watchers, and Retrofit. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received February 15, 2018.
- Revision received August 7, 2018.
- Accepted August 8, 2018.
- 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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