Author + information
- Received May 6, 2018
- Revision received July 18, 2018
- Accepted July 24, 2018
- Published online October 1, 2018.
- Jonathan D. Newman, MD, MPHa,∗ (, )@JDNewmanMD@nyuschoolofmed,
- Anish K. Vani, MDa,
- Jose O. Aleman, MD, PhDb,
- Howard S. Weintraub, MDa,
- Jeffrey S. Berger, MD, MSa and
- Arthur Z. Schwartzbard, MDa
- aDivision of Cardiology and Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York
- bDivision of Endocrinology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Jonathan D. Newman, Division of Cardiology and the Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, TRB rm. 853, New York, New York 10016.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death in T2D. Despite improved risk factor control, however, adults with T2D continue to experience substantial excess CVD risk. Until recently, however, improved glycemic control has not been associated with robust macrovascular benefit. The advent of 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and their respective large cardiovascular outcome trials, has led to a paradigm shift in how cardiologists and heath care practitioners conceptualize T2D treatment. Herein, the authors review the recent trial evidence, the potential mechanisms of action of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, safety concerns, and their use for the primary prevention of CVD as well as in diabetic patients with impaired renal function and heart failure.
Drs. Newman and Berger have been partially funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (K23HL125991 to Dr. Newman; HL114978 to Dr. Berger). Dr. Aleman has been partially funded by the American Heart Association. Funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the paper. Dr. Weintraub has received honoraria from Amgen, Sanofi, and Gilead for consulting; has served on the Speakers Bureau for Amgen; and has received research funding from Amarin, Sanofi, Akcea, and Ionis. Dr. Berger has received research funding from AstraZeneca and Janssen. Dr. Schwartzbard has received research funding to New York University from Merck/Pfizer, Amarin, Sanofi, and Ionis; and has served as a consultant to the formulary committee for Optum Rx. Dr. Vani has reported that he has no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received May 6, 2018.
- Revision received July 18, 2018.
- Accepted July 24, 2018.
- 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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