|Model 1∗||Model 2†||Model 3‡|
|CVD||1.22 (1.07–1.39)||1.13 (0.99–1.30)||1.10 (0.96–1.26)|
|CHD||1.22 (1.03–1.44)||1.12 (0.95–1.33)||1.09 (0.92–1.31)|
|Heart failure||1.16 (0.93–1.44)||1.08 (0.87–1.35)||1.05 (0.83–1.32)|
|HFpEF||1.26 (0.94–1.70)||1.12 (0.82–1.53)||1.15 (0.82–1.60)|
|HFrEF||1.15 (0.80–1.66)||1.11 (0.76–1.62)||1.11 (0.75–1.63)|
The free androgen index (FAI) is log-transformed and standardized. Hazard ratios (HRs) are associated with 1 SD increase in log FAI. Bolded results are statistically significant.
CI = confidence interval; CVD = cardiovascular disease; CHD = coronary heart disease; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; MESA = Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
↵∗ Model 1: adjusts for age (year, continuous), race/ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese), study site (California, Minnesota, New York, Illinois, North Carolina, and Maryland), and use of hormone therapy (yes, no).
↵† Model 2: model 1 + education (<high school, high school, >high school), waist to hip ratio (continuous), physical activity, and smoking (never, former, current).
↵‡ Model 3: model 2 + systolic blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury, continuous), use of antihypertensive medications (yes, no), total cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter, continuous), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (milligrams per deciliter, continuous), use of lipid-lowering medications (yes, no), diabetes (yes, no), estimated glomerular filtration rate (milliliters/minute per 1.73 m2), C-reactive protein (milligrams per liter, log-transformed continuous), interleukin-6 (picograms per milliliter, log-transformed, continuous), fibrinogen (milligrams per deciliter, log-transformed continuous), and D-dimer (micrograms per milliliter, log-transformed continuous). Bold indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05).