Author + information
- Received October 18, 2017
- Revision received December 15, 2017
- Accepted January 10, 2018
- Published online February 20, 2018.
- Adrian Baranchuk, MDa,
- Marwan M. Refaat, MDb,
- Kristen K. Patton, MDc,
- Mina K. Chung, MDd,
- Kousik Krishnan, MDe,
- Valentina Kutyifa, MD, PhDf,
- Gaurav Upadhyay, MDg,
- John D. Fisher, MDh,
- Dhanunjaya R. Lakkireddy, MDi,∗ (, )
- American College of Cardiology’s Electrophysiology Section Leadership
- aElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
- bElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
- cElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- dElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart & Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
- eElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois
- fElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York
- gElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- hElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York
- iElectrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, University of Kansas, Kansas City, Kansas
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Dhanunjaya R. Lakkireddy, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Kansas Hospital and Medical Center, MS 4023, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas 66160.
Medical devices have been targets of hacking for over a decade, and this cybersecurity issue has affected many types of medical devices. Lately, the potential for hacking of cardiac devices (pacemakers and defibrillators) claimed the attention of the media, patients, and health care providers. This is a burgeoning problem that our newly electronically connected world faces. In this paper from the Electrophysiology Section Council, we briefly discuss various aspects of this relatively new threat in light of recent incidents involving the potential for hacking of cardiac devices. We explore the possible risks for the patients and the effect of device reconfiguration in an attempt to thwart cybersecurity threats. We provide an outline of what can be done to improve cybersecurity from the standpoint of the manufacturer, government, professional societies, physician, and patient.
Dr. Chung has received honoraria from UpToDate; has received research support from Zoll; and has served on the EPIC Alliance steering committee for Biotronik (uncompensated). Dr. Krishnan has served as a clinical trial principal investigator for St. Jude Medical. Dr. Kutyifa has received research grants from Boston Scientific and Zoll. Dr. Upadhyay has received research support from Medtronic and Biotronik. Dr. Fisher has served as a consultant to Medtronic; and has received fellowship support from Medtronic, Abbott, and Biotronik. Dr. Lakkireddy has served as a speaker for Janssen, Pfizer, and Biotronik; and has received unrestricted research grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Biosense Webster. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
The views expressed in this paper by the American College of Cardiology’s (ACC’s) Electrophysiology Section Leadership Group do not necessarily reflect the views of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology or the ACC.
- Received October 18, 2017.
- Revision received December 15, 2017.
- Accepted January 10, 2018.
- 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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