Table 2

HR (95% CI) for CHD According to Deciles of the PDI

Decile 1Decile 2Decile 3Decile 4Decile 5Decile 6Decile 7Decile 8Decile 9Decile 10HR (95% CI) per 10-Up Trend
Nurses’ Health Study
Median45.348.750.752.253.755.056.558.060.063.5
Cases/PY354/187,576345/182,392342/188,258295/175,859352/200,856272/183,715337/192,344298/184,899326/190,404312/190,640
Age-adjusted1.000.96 (0.83–1.11)0.92 (0.80–1.07)0.83 (0.71–0.97)0.86 (0.75–1.00)0.71 (0.61–0.84)0.82 (0.70–0.95)0.74 (0.64–0.87)0.78 (0.67–0.90)0.70 (0.60–0.82)0.81 (0.76–0.87)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.001.02 (0.88–1.18)1.04 (0.90–1.21)0.97 (0.83–1.13)1.01 (0.87–1.18)0.88 (0.75–1.03)0.97 (0.83–1.13)0.92 (0.79–1.09)0.95 (0.81–1.12)0.87 (0.74–1.03)0.92 (0.85–0.98)0.04
Nurses’ Health Study 2
Median45.048.550.752.353.855.056.858.560.764.0
Cases/PY91/195,18375/194,82675/204,89073/197,87963/187,96467/202,07556/215,82251/201,30760/200,82456/199,175
Age-adjusted1.000.84 (0.62–1.15)0.77 (0.57–1.05)0.78 (0.58–1.07)0.67 (0.48–0.92)0.69 (0.51–0.95)0.54 (0.39–0.76)0.51 (0.36–0.71)0.59 (0.43–0.82)0.54 (0.39–0.75)0.69 (0.60–0.79)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.95 (0.70–1.29)0.91 (0.67–1.24)0.95 (0.69–1.29)0.80 (0.58–1.12)0.89 (0.64–1.23)0.71 (0.50–1.01)0.66 (0.46–0.95)0.80 (0.56–1.13)0.77 (0.54–1.11)0.81 (0.70–0.95)0.02
Health Professionals Follow-Up Study
Median45.048.050.452.054.055.357.058.560.864.2
Cases/PY492/86,581441/87,892409/88,955471/97,460434/86,993449/94,437369/80,989435/89,147397/92,546463/92,145
Age-adjusted1.000.90 (0.79–1.02)0.80 (0.70–0.91)0.83 (0.73–0.94)0.86 (0.75–0.97)0.81 (0.71–0.92)0.73 (0.64–0.84)0.79 (0.69–0.90)0.69 (0.60–0.79)0.79 (0.70–0.90)0.88 (0.84–0.92)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.97 (0.85–1.10)0.88 (0.77–1.01)0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.98 (0.86–1.12)0.92 (0.81–1.05)0.85 (0.74–0.98)0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.82 (0.71–0.94)0.95 (0.83–1.09)0.96 (0.90–1.01)0.10
Pooled Results (Fixed-Effects Model)
Age-adjusted1.000.92 (0.84–1.01)0.85 (0.78–0.94)0.83 (0.76–0.91)0.85 (0.78–0.93)0.77 (0.70–0.84)0.76 (0.69–0.84)0.75 (0.68–0.82)0.71 (0.65–0.78)0.75 (0.68–0.82)0.84§ (0.81–0.87)<0.001§
Multivariable adjusted1.000.99 (0.91–1.09)0.96 (0.87–1.05)0.94 (0.86–1.04)0.99 (0.90–1.08)0.91 (0.83–1.00)0.90 (0.82–0.99)0.90 (0.82–0.99)0.87 (0.79–0.96)0.92 (0.83–1.01)0.93 (0.90–0.97)0.003

Multivariable adjusted model: adjusted for age (yrs); smoking status (never, past, current [1 to 14, 15 to 24, or ≥25 cigarettes/day]); physical activity (<3, 3 to 8.9, 9 to 17.9, 18 to 26.9, or ≥27 metabolic equivalent task h/week); alcohol intake (0, 0.1 to 4.9, 5 to 9.9, 10 to 14.9, or ≥15 g/day); multivitamin use (yes/no); aspirin use (yes/no); family history of CHD (yes/no); margarine intake (quintiles); energy intake (quintiles); baseline hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes (yes/no); and updated body mass index (<21, 21 to 22.9, 23 to 24.9, 25 to 26.9, 27 to 29.9, 30 to 32.9, 33 to 34.9, 35 to 39.9, or ≥40 kg/m2). Also adjusted for post-menopausal hormone use in NHS and NHS2 (pre-menopausal, post-menopausal current, past or never user), and for oral contraceptive use in NHS2 (never, past, or current user).

CHD = coronary heart disease; CI = confidence interval(s); HR = hazard ratio(s); PY = person-years; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • The p value when we assigned the median value to each decile and entered this as a continuous variable in the model.

  • The p value for Q-statistic for heterogeneity <0.05, indicating statistically significant heterogeneity in HR among the 3 studies.

  • I2 statistic = 60% to 69%.

  • § I2 statistic = 80% to 89%.