Table 1

Examples of Food Items Constituting the 18 Food Groups (From the 1984 NHS FFQ)

Plant Food Groups
 Whole grainsWhole grain breakfast cereal, other cooked breakfast cereal, cooked oatmeal, dark bread, brown rice, other grains, bran, wheat germ, popcornPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 FruitsRaisins or grapes, prunes, bananas, cantaloupe, watermelon, fresh apples or pears, oranges, grapefruit, strawberries, blueberries, peaches or apricots or plumsPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 VegetablesTomatoes, tomato juice, tomato sauce, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, carrots, mixed vegetables, yellow or winter squash, eggplant or zucchini, yams or sweet potatoes, spinach cooked, spinach raw, kale or mustard or chard greens, iceberg or head lettuce, romaine or leaf lettuce, celery, mushrooms, beets, alfalfa sprouts, garlic, cornPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 NutsNuts, peanut butterPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 LegumesString beans, tofu or soybeans, beans or lentils, peas or lima beansPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 Vegetable oilsOil-based salad dressing, vegetable oil used for cookingPositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
 Tea and coffeeTea, coffee, decaffeinated coffeePositive scoresPositive scoresReverse scores
Less healthy
 Fruit juicesApple cider (nonalcoholic) or juice, orange juice, grapefruit juice, other fruit juicePositive scoresReverse scoresPositive scores
 Refined grainsRefined grain breakfast cereal, white bread, English muffins or bagels or rolls, muffins or biscuits, white rice, pancakes or waffles, crackers, pastaPositive scoresReverse scoresPositive scores
 PotatoesFrench fries, baked or mashed potatoes, potato or corn chipsPositive scoresReverse scoresPositive scores
 Sugar sweetened beveragesColas with caffeine and sugar, colas without caffeine but with sugar, other carbonated beverages with sugar, noncarbonated fruit drinks with sugarPositive scoresReverse scoresPositive scores
 Sweets and dessertsChocolates, candy bars, candy without chocolate, cookies (home-baked and ready-made), brownies, doughnuts, cake (home-baked and ready-made), sweet roll (home-baked and ready-made), pie (home-baked and ready-made), jams or jellies or preserves or syrup or honeyPositive scoresReverse scoresPositive scores
Animal Food Groups
Animal fatButter added to food, butter or lard used for cookingReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores
DairySkim low fat milk, whole milk, cream, sour cream, sherbet, ice cream, yogurt, cottage or ricotta cheese, cream cheese, other cheeseReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores
EggEggsReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores
Fish or seafoodCanned tuna, dark meat fish, other fish, shrimp or lobster or scallopsReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores
MeatChicken or turkey with skin, chicken or turkey without skin, bacon, hot dogs, processed meats, liver, hamburger, beef or pork or lamb mixed dish, beef or pork or lamb main dishReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores
Miscellaneous animal-based foodsPizza, chowder or cream soup, mayonnaise or other creamy salad dressingReverse scoresReverse scoresReverse scores

FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; hPDI = healthful plant-based diet index; NHS = Nurses’ Health Study; PDI = overall plant-based diet index; uPDI = unhealthful plant-based diet index.