Table 3

HR (95% CI) for CHD According to Deciles of the hPDI

Decile 1Decile 2Decile 3Decile 4Decile 5Decile 6Decile 7Decile 8Decile 9Decile 10HR (95% CI) per 10-Up Trend
Nurses’ Health Study
Median44.348.050.552.454.055.857.559.361.765.5
Cases/PY359/188,352323/186,140327/190,716327/187,664313/183,877322/191,819306/188,145330/187,373322/184,367304/188,490
Age-adjusted1.000.85 (0.73–0.99)0.80 (0.69–0.93)0.78 (0.67–0.91)0.74 (0.64–0.86)0.71 (0.61–0.83)0.66 (0.57–0.77)0.70 (0.60–0.81)0.66 (0.57–0.77)0.57 (0.49–0.67)0.80 (0.75–0.84)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.91 (0.78–1.06)0.90 (0.77–1.05)0.88 (0.75–1.02)0.87 (0.74–1.01)0.83 (0.71–0.97)0.76 (0.65–0.90)0.83 (0.71–0.98)0.78 (0.67–0.92)0.68 (0.57–0.80)0.86 (0.81–0.91)<0.001
Nurses’ Health Study 2
Median44.048.050.552.354.055.857.359.261.665.6
Cases/PY79/203,12172/192,05478/220,04261/187,94476/207,40570/201,13860/196,64065/199,69562/192,38144/199,524
Age-adjusted1.000.90 (0.66–1.24)0.87 (0.64–1.19)0.74 (0.53–1.03)0.84 (0.61–1.15)0.76 (0.55–1.05)0.67 (0.47–0.93)0.67 (0.48–0.93)0.65 (0.47–0.91)0.42 (0.29–0.61)0.72 (0.64–0.81)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.98 (0.71–1.35)0.97 (0.71–1.34)0.85 (0.60–1.19)0.98 (0.71–1.35)0.87 (0.62–1.21)0.78 (0.55–1.11)0.80 (0.57–1.13)0.77 (0.54–1.09)0.53 (0.36–0.79)0.79 (0.69–0.90)0.001
Health Professionals Follow-Up Study
Median43.047.250.052.053.855.557.259.262.066.0
Cases/PY413/88,274452/89,330404/92,920486/93,019425/88,417448/89,543425/89,922431/85,604424/91,479452/88,635
Age-adjusted1.000.96 (0.84–1.10)0.84 (0.73–0.96)0.95 (0.83–1.08)0.84 (0.74–0.97)0.86 (0.75–0.98)0.79 (0.69–0.90)0.82 (0.72–0.94)0.74 (0.65–0.85)0.77 (0.67–0.88)0.88 (0.84–0.92)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.99 (0.87–1.14)0.87 (0.76–1.00)0.99 (0.86–1.13)0.89 (0.78–1.03)0.91 (0.79–1.04)0.84 (0.73–0.97)0.89 (0.77–1.02)0.80 (0.70–0.93)0.84 (0.73–0.97)0.90 (0.86–0.95)<0.001
Pooled Results (Fixed-Effects Model)
Age-adjusted1.000.90 (0.82–0.99)0.82 (0.74–0.90)0.86 (0.78–0.94)0.79 (0.72–0.87)0.78 (0.71–0.85)0.72 (0.66–0.79)0.75 (0.68–0.82)0.70 (0.63–0.76)0.66 (0.60–0.73)0.84 (0.81–0.86)<0.001
Multivariable adjusted1.000.95 (0.86–1.04)0.88 (0.80–0.97)0.92 (0.84–1.01)0.88 (0.80–0.97)0.86 (0.78–0.95)0.80 (0.73–0.88)0.85 (0.77–0.94)0.79 (0.71–0.87)0.75§ (0.68–0.83)0.88 (0.85–0.91)<0.001

Multivariable adjusted model: adjusted for age (yrs); smoking status (never, past, current [1 to 14, 15 to 24, or ≥25 cigarettes/day]); physical activity (<3, 3 to 8.9, 9 to 17.9, 18 to 26.9, or ≥27 metabolic equivalent task h/week); alcohol intake (0, 0.1 to 4.9, 5 to 9.9, 10 to 14.9, or ≥15 g/day); multivitamin use (yes/no); aspirin use (yes/no); family history of CHD (yes/no); margarine intake (quintiles); energy intake (quintiles); baseline hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes (yes/no); and updated body mass index (<21, 21 to 22.9, 23 to 24.9, 25 to 26.9, 27 to 29.9, 30 to 32.9, 33 to 34.9, 35 to 39.9, or ≥40 kg/m2). Also adjusted for post-menopausal hormone use in NHS and NHS2 (pre-menopausal, post-menopausal current, past or never user), and for oral contraceptive use in NHS2 (never, past, or current user).

Abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.

  • The p value when we assigned the median value to each decile and entered this as a continuous variable in the model.

  • The p value for Q-statistic for heterogeneity <0.05, indicating statistically significant heterogeneity in HR among the 3 studies.

  • I2 statistic = 80% to 89%.

  • § I2 statistic = 70% to 79%.