Table 2

Selected Potential Causes of Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Levels (38–41)

Cardiac
 HF, including RV syndromes
 Acute coronary syndromes
 Heart muscle disease, including LVH
 Valvular heart disease
 Pericardial disease
 Atrial fibrillation
 Myocarditis
 Cardiac surgery
 Cardioversion
 Toxic-metabolic myocardial insults, including cancer chemotherapy
Noncardiac
 Advancing age
 Anemia
 Renal failure
 Pulmonary: obstructive sleep apnea, severe pneumonia
 Pulmonary hypertension
 Critical illness
 Bacterial sepsis
 Severe burns

Modified from Table 8 of the 2013 HF guideline (9).

HF, indicates heart failure; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; and RV, right ventricular.