Table 1

Comparison of Baseline Characteristics, Intermediary Outcomes, and Processes of Care According to Spontaneous Gasping or Breathing During CPR for OHCA Patients

Spontaneous Gasping or Breathing During CPRUnadjusted Odds Ratio of Gasping (95% CI)
No (n = 1,683)Yes (n = 197)
Male1,065 (63)118 (60)0.87 (0.63–1.19)
Age, yrs64 ± 1763 ± 160.97 (0.84–1.13)
Cardiac arrest witnessed875 (52)153 (78)3.27 (2.28–4.76)
Bystander CPR provision717 (43)79 (40)0.90 (0.66–1.23)
Initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm
 Asystole931 (56)34 (18)1.00
 VF or pulseless VT353 (21)101 (52)7.83 (5.21–11.78)
 Pulseless electrical activity376 (23)58 (30)4.22 (2.72–6.56)
Emergency call to first response time, min6.8 ± 3.56.1 ± 2.50.76 (0.63–0.92)
Emergency call to EMS CPR start time, min7.0 ± 3.66.3 ± 2.80.76 (0.61–0.94)
Emergency call to placement of study devices, min§7.5 ± 3.67.0 ± 3.40.86 (0.67–1.10)
Advanced airway during EMS CPR (endotracheal intubation or supraglottic airway)1,462 (87)161 (82)0.66 (0.45–1.01)
Epinephrine dosage, mg3.4 ± 2.22.6 ± 2.60.70 (0.60–0.83)
Duration of CPR, min27 ± 1223 ± 140.72 (0.62–0.83)
ROSC during pre-hospital CPR631 (38)150 (76)5.32 (3.74–7.65)
Elevated level of conscience during prehospital CPR21 (1.3)43 (22)22.08 (12.41–40.10)
Pulmonary edema148 (8.8)26 (13)1.58 (0.97–2.49)
Admitted to hospital436 (26)114 (58)3.93 (2.87–5.39)
In-hospital procedures
 Induced hypothermia160/436 (37)48/114 (42)1.25 (0.80–1.95)
 Cardiac catheterization95/436 (22)51/114 (45)2.91 (1.84–4.58)
 Coronary stenting31/436 (7.1)15/114 (13)1.98 (0.95–3.95)
 Coronary bypass surgery7/436 (1.6)6/114 (5.3)3.40 (0.92–12.07)
 Implanted cardioverter-defibrillator29/436 (6.7)28/114 (25)4.57 (2.47–8.38)
Survival to hospital discharge132 (7.9)67 (34)6.07 (4.22–8.67)
CPC score ≤2 at hospital discharge80 (4.8)51 (26)7.09 (4.69–10.64)
MRS score ≤3 at hospital discharge80 (4.8)48 (25)6.54 (4.29–9.87)

Values are n (%), mean ± SD, or n/N (%), unless otherwise indicated.

CI = confidence interval; CPC = cerebral performance category; CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS = emergency medical services; MRS = modified Rankin scale; OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; ROSC = return of spontaneous circulation; VF = ventricular fibrillation; VT = ventricular tachycardia.

  • The analytical sample consisted of 1,888 patients. Values were missing for spontaneous gasping or breathing during CPR (n = 8), age (n = 2), cardiac arrest surroundings (n = 6), bystander CPR (n = 2), initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm (n = 28), emergency call to first response time (n = 1), emergency call to EMS CPR start time (n = 2), emergency call to placement of study devices (n = 26), advanced airway during EMS CPR (n = 4), elevated level of conscience (n = 8), ROSC during prehospital CPR (n = 2), duration of CPR (n = 1), survival to hospital discharge (n = 9), CPC (n = 15), and MRS (n = 14) scores at hospital discharge.

  • Odds ratios were expressed for 1 SD increment in patient age, emergency call to first response time, emergency call to EMS CPR start time, emergency call to placement of study devices, duration of CPR and epinephrine dosage.

  • Data did not include cardiac arrests witnessed by EMS personnel.

  • § Data included active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation recipients only.

  • Data included patients admitted to hospital only.