Table 2

Comparison of 1-Yr Survival With CPC ≤2 According to Baseline Characteristics, Intermediary Outcomes, and Processes of Care for OHCA Patients

N1-Yr Survivors With CPC ≤2Unadjusted Odds Ratio of 1-Yr Survival With CPC ≤2 (95% CI)
Sex
 Female67131 (4.6)1.00
 Male1,15667 (5.8)1.27 (0.81–2.04)
Age, yrs
 18–351007 (7.0)1.00
 35–4513311 (8.3)1.20 (0.45–3.21)
 45–5528820 (6.9)0.99 (0.41–2.42)
 55–6538325 (6.5)0.93 (0.39–2.21)
 65–7535023 (6.6)0.93 (0.39–2.24)
 75–853477 (2.0)0.27 (0.09–0.80)
 ≥852245 (2.2)0.30 (0.09–0.98)
Cardiac arrest witnessed
 Unwitnessed83718 (2.2)1.00
 Bystander/EMS witnessed98480 (8.1)4.03 (2.37–7.19)
Bystander CPR provision
 No1,05060 (5.7)1.00
 Yes77538 (4.9)0.85 (0.54–1.31)
Initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm
 Asystole9589 (0.9)1.00
 VF or pulseless VT42275 (18)22.79 (11.29–46.00)
 Pulseless electrical activity42610 (2.4)2.53 (1.02–6.28)
Emergency call to first response time, min
 0–537441 (11)1.00
 ≥51,45257 (3.9)0.33 (0.21–0.52)
Emergency call to EMS CPR start time, min
 0–529329 (9.9)1.00
 ≥51,31645 (3.4)0.37 (0.23–0.59)
Emergency call to placement of study devices, min
 0–512415 (12)1.00
 ≥568523 (3.4)0.25 (0.12–0.54)
Advanced airway during EMS CPR
 No23429 (12)1.00
 Yes1,58969 (4.3)0.32 (0.20–0.53)
Epinephrine use
 No22656 (25)1.00
 Yes1,60142 (2.6)0.09 (0.04–0.18)
Duration of CPR, min
 0–1533271 (21)1.00
 ≥151,49427 (1.8)0.07 (0.04–0.11)
ROSC during pre-hospital CPR
 No1,1004 (0.4)1.00
 Yes72594 (13)40.82 (15.29–153.41)
Spontaneous gasping or breathing during CPR
 No1,64361 (3.7)1.00
 Yes17736 (20)6.62 (4.10–10.55)
Elevated level of conscience
 No1,76681 (4.6)1.00
 Yes5417 (31)9.56 (4.82–18.23)
Pulmonary edema
 No1,66380 (4.8)1.00
 Yes16418 (11)2.44 (1.34–4.24)
Admitted to hospital
 No1,3330 (0.0)1.00
 Yes49498 (20)
Induced hypothermia§
 No30046 (15)1.00
 Yes19452 (27)2.02 (1.26–3.24)
Cardiac catheterization§
 No37020 (5.4)1.00
 Yes12478 (63)29.67 (16.07–55.60)
Coronary stenting§
 No45472 (16)1.00
 Yes4026 (65)9.85 (4.67–21.32)
Coronary bypass surgery§
 No48387 (18)1.00
 Yes1111 (100)
Implanted cardioverter-defibrillator§
 No44752 (12)1.00
 Yes4746 (98)

Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • The analytical sample consisted of 1,827 patients with documented 1-year survival and cerebral performance category score. Values were missing for age (n = 2), cardiac arrest surroundings (n = 6), bystander CPR (n = 2), initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm (n = 21), emergency call to first response time (n = 1), emergency call to EMS CPR start time (n = 2), emergency call to placement of study devices (n = 25), advanced airway during EMS CPR (n = 4), spontaneous gasping or breathing during CPR (n = 7), elevated level of conscience (n = 7), ROSC during prehospital CPR (n = 2), and duration of CPR (n = 1).

  • Data did not include cardiac arrests witnessed by EMS personnel.

  • Data included active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation recipients only.

  • § Data included patients admitted to hospital only.