Table 3

Independent Association of Spontaneous Gasping or Breathing During CPR With 1-Yr Survival With CPC ≤2 for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients (n = 1,827)

Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Spontaneous gasping or breathing during CPR3.94 (2.09–7.44)
Male1.49 (0.83–2.68)
Age, yrs0.57 (0.43–0.76)
Pulmonary edema3.41 (1.53–7.60)
Cardiac arrest witnessed1.49 (0.76–2.92)
Bystander CPR provision1.19 (0.68–2.08)
Initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm, min
 Asystole1.00
 VF or pulseless VT16.50 (7.40–36.81)
 Pulseless electrical activity1.22 (0.45–3.34)
Emergency call to first response time, min0.75 (0.51–1.09)
Total CPR duration, min0.31 (0.19–0.51)
Epinephrine dosage, mg0.47 (0.25–0.87)

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • The analytical sample consisted of 1,827 patients with documented 1-yr survival and cerebral performance category score, after multiple imputation of missing values for 34 patients with a missing value for 1 or more covariates (age [n = 2], cardiac arrest surroundings [n = 6], bystander CPR [n = 2], initial recorded cardiac arrest rhythm [n = 21], emergency call to first response time [n = 1], spontaneous gasping or breathing at any time during CPR [n = 7], elevated level of conscience [n = 7], ROSC during prehospital CPR [n = 2], and duration of CPR [n = 1]). Fifty imputed datasets were created with a total run length of 50,000 iterations and imputations made every 1,000 iterations.

  • Odds ratios were adjusted for study arm and site. Odds ratios were expressed for 1 SD increment in patient age, emergency call to first response time, total CPR duration, and epinephrine dosage.