Table 4

Independent Association of Spontaneous Gasping or Breathing During CPR With 1-Yr Survival With CPC ≤2 Stratified by Initial Recorded Cardiac Rhythm

Ventricular Fibrillation or Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardiap Value for Interaction
Yes (n = 422)No (n = 1,384)
Spontaneous gasping or breathing during CPR3.32 (1.53–7.22)5.36 (1.61–17.84)0.52
Age, yrs0.52 (0.35–0.77)0.57 (0.36–0.92)0.63
Male2.30 (1.05–5.06)0.61 (0.22–1.65)0.02
Pulmonary edema4.68 (1.64–13.37)0.94 (0.17–5.22)0.17
Cardiac arrest witnessed1.40 (0.60–3.30)2.35 (0.71–7.82)0.40
Bystander CPR provision0.90 (0.45–1.81)3.12 (0.82–11.93)0.09
Emergency call to first responder CPR start time, min0.66 (0.40–1.10)0.89 (0.51–1.55)0.47
Total CPR duration, min0.29 (0.15–0.54)0.34 (0.14–0.82)0.90
Epinephrine dosage, mg0.45 (0.21–0.96)0.48 (0.15–1.52)0.98

Values are odds ratio (95% confidence interval).

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • The analytical sample consisted of 1,806 patients with documented 1-yr survival with favorable neurologic outcome, after multiple imputation of missing values for 13 patients with a missing value for 1 or more covariates (age [n = 1], cardiac arrest surroundings [n = 5], bystander CPR [n = 1], elevated level of conscience [n = 5], ROSC during prehospital CPR [n = 1], and spontaneous gasping or breathing at any time during CPR [n = 6]). Fifty imputed datasets were created with a total run length of 50,000 iterations and imputations made every 1,000 iterations.

  • Odds ratios were adjusted for study arm and site. Odds ratios were expressed for 1 SD increment in patient age, emergency call to first response time, total CPR duration, and epinephrine dosage.