Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Study Population by Physical Activity Tertile

All Subjects (N = 15,487)Least Active (n = 5,281)Intermediate Activity (n = 5,055)Most Active (n = 5,151)p Value
Age, yrs65.0 ± 12.065.0 ± 12.065.0 ± 11.064.0 ± 12.0<0.0001
Female2,885 (18.6)921 (17.4)989 (19.6)975 (18.9)0.0170
Time from qualifying event to randomization, yrs3.42 ± 6.383.22 ± 6.32)3.49 ± 6.663.57 ± 6.25<0.0001
Follow-up time from randomization, yrs3.79 ± 0.313.75 ± 0.323.80 ± 0.313.81 ± 0.31<0.0001
Attended cardiac rehabilitation5,397 (35.1)1,608 (30.7)1,865 (37.2)1,924 (37.6)<0.0001
Geographic region
 Asia/Pacific3,052 (19.7)1,275 (24.1)1,054 (20.9)723 (14.0)<0.0001
 Eastern Europe3,442 (22.2)805 (15.2)1,107 (21.9)1,530 (29.7)<0.0001
 North America3,969 (25.6)1,397 (26.5)1,323 (26.2)1,249 (24.2)<0.0001
 South America1,177 (7.6)646 (12.2)320 (6.3)211 (4.1)<0.0001
 Western Europe3,847 (24.8)1,158 (21.9)1,251 (24.7)1,438 (27.9)<0.0001
Risk factors
 Current smoker2,789 (18.0)938 (17.8)813 (16.1)1,038 (20.2)<0.0001
 Body mass index, kg/m228.3 ± 6.228.4 ± 6.928.2 ± 6.028.3 ± 5.80.0066
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg131.0 ± 22.0130.0 ± 23.0130.0 ± 22.0131.0 ± 22.00.0100
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg79.0 ± 13.078.0 ± 14.079.0 ± 14.080.0 ± 13.0<0.0001
 Hypertension11,075 (71.5)3,854 (73.0)3,579 (70.8)3,642 (70.7)0.0144
 LDL-cholesterol, mmol/l2.07 ± 0.992.01 ± 1.012.06 ± 0.962.14 ± 1.00<0.0001
 HDL-cholesterol, mmol/l1.15 ± 0.381.13 ± 0.401.17 ± 0.401.19 ± 0.40<0.0001
 Triglycerides, mmol/l1.52 ± 1.031.58 ± 1.031.50 ± 1.021.46 ± 1.02<0.0001
 HB, g/l144.0 ± 18.0142.0 ± 19.0144.0 ± 18.0145.0 ± 17.0<0.0001
 WBC, gi/l6.5 ± 2.36.7 ± 2.46.5 ± 2.26.4 ± 2.2<0.0001
 eGFR (according to CKD-EPI)74.4 ± 25.172.9 ± 27.673.9 ± 24.575.8 ± 23.1<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus6,000 (38.7)2,297 (43.5)1,965 (38.9)1,738 (33.7)<0.0001
Cardiovascular and renal disease markers
 Significant renal dysfunction4,682 (30.2)1,828 (34.6)1,557 (30.8)1,297 (25.2)<0.0001
 Prior myocardial infarction9,114 (58.8)3,156 (59.8)2,907 (57.5)3,051 (59.2)0.0528
 Prior PCI or CABG11,610 (75.0)3,881 (73.5)3,855 (76.3)3,874 (75.2)0.0045
 Multivessel coronary heart disease2,337 (15.1)918 (17.4)711 (14.1)708 (13.7)<0.0001
 Polyvascular disease2,325 (15.0)829 (15.7)759 (15.0)737 (14.3)0.1389
 Congestive heart failure3,326 (21.5)1,139 (21.6)1,087 (21.5)1,100 (21.4)0.9628
STABILITY CHD risk score0.44 ± 0.760.50 ± 0.990.44 ± 0.760.39 ± 0.62<0.0001
Measures of physical activity
 All self-reported physical activity, METs h/week40.0 ± 52.014.0 ± 12.040.0 ± 14.090.0 ± 52.0<0.0001
 Duration of physical activity, h/week14.0 ± 16.05.0 ± 4.014.0 ± 7.028.0 ± 13.0<0.0001
 Average exercise intensity, METs2.6 ± 1.21.9 ± 0.62.6 ± 0.93.2 ± 1.0<0.0001
 Mild exercise, h/week7.0 ± 10.04.0 ± 5.09.0 ± 8.014.0 ± 14.0<0.0001
 Moderate exercise, h/week4.0 ± 10.00.0 ± 2.04.0 ± 5.011.0 ± 12.0<0.0001
 Vigorous exercise, h/week0.0 ± 0.00.0 ± 0.00.0 ± 0.01.0 ± 5.0<0.0001
 Moderate or vigorous intensity exercise, METs h/week20.0 ± 48.00.0 ± 8.020.0 ± 20.064.0 ± 40.0<0.0001
Highest reported intensity of habitual physical activity
 Mild3,755 (24.2)2,637 (50.6)1,038 (20.5)80 (1.6)<0.0001
 Moderate7,511 (48.4)1,910 (36.2)3,099 (61.3)2,502 (48.6)<0.0001
 Vigorous3,651 (23.6)164 (3.1)918 (18.1)2,569 (49.9)<0.0001
Physical activity during leisure time
 Mainly sedentary4,905 (32.5)2,509 (48.9)1,416 (28.8)980 (19.5)<0.0001
 Mild exercise6,655 (44.2)2,126 (41.4)2,388 (48.5)2,141 (42.7)<0.0001
 Moderate exercise3,377 (22.4)484 (9.4)1,089 (22.1)1,804 (36.0)<0.0001
 Strenuous physical exercise136 (0.9)15 (0.3)32 (0.6)89 (1.8)<0.0001
Physical activity at work
 Mainly sedentary2,499 (16.4)1,157 (22.3)819 (16.5)523 (10.3)<0.0001
 Predominantly walking on 1 level, no heavy lifting2,558 (16.8)856 (16.5)869 (17.6)833 (16.5)<0.0001
 Mainly walking, including climbing stairs, or walking uphill or lifting heavy objects1,488 (9.8)316 (6.1)360 (7.3)812 (16.0)<0.0001
 Heavy physical activity222 (1.5)32 (0.6)25 (0.5)165 (3.3)<0.0001
 I do not work8,438 (55.5)2,832 (54.5)2,878 (58.1)2,728 (53.9)<0.0001
Symptoms that limit exercise
 Dyspnea7,692 (50.1)2,767 (52.9)2,505 (50.0)2,420 (47.3)<0.0001
 Chest pain or discomfort5,751 (37.5)2,052 (39.3)1,890 (37.9)1,809 (35.4)0.0003
 Fatigue9,347 (61.1)3,226 (61.9)3,022 (60.7)3,099 (60.8)0.3459

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD-EPI = Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology research group calculator; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HB = hemoglobin; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; METs = metabolic equivalents; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; STABILITY = Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (trial); WBC = white blood cell count.