Table 1

Diverse Cardiovascular Sources of EVs: Bioactivity and Therapeutic Implications

Cell Source of EVsBioactivity of EVsPotential Therapeutic IndicationsAuthor (Ref. #), Study Year
Bone marrow dendritic cellsDecreased T-cell activityAllograft rejectionPêche et al. (48), 2003
HUVECsSoluble TNF receptor releaseInflammatory, immune, and stress responsesHawari et al. (49), 2004
CardiomyocytesRelease of heat shock proteinsCardioprotectionGupta and Knowlton (50), 2007
PlateletsMyocardial dysfunctionAntagonism in sepsisAzevedo et al. (51), 2007
Sca-1+ heart cellsEnhanced endothelial cell migrationWound healingVrijsen et al. (52), 2010
KLF2-expressing endothelial cellsReduced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− miceAtherosclerosisHergenreider et al. (53), 2012
CD34+ cellsIncreased endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and tube formationAngiogenesisSahoo et al. (18), 2011
Mesenchymal stromal cellsCytoprotection of pulmonary artery endothelial cellsPulmonary hypertensionLee et al. (54), 2012
MacrophagesInduced differentiation in naive monocytesInflammatory disordersIsmail et al. (55), 2013
CardiospheresEVs shown by electron microscopyUnclearBarile et al. (56), 2012
Cardiac fibroblastsCardiomyocyte hypertrophyAntagonism in hypertrophyBang et al. (57), 2014
Cardiosphere-derived cellsEV blockade prevents, and EVs mimic, CDC benefitsMyocardial infarction, heart failureIbrahim et al. (19), 2014
c-kit+ heart cellsEnhanced endothelial cell tube formation, decreased profibrotic genes in fibroblastsIschemia-reperfusion injury, heart failureGray et al. (58), 2015
Vascular smooth muscle cellsAutocrine calcificationVascular calcificationKapustin et al. (59), 2015
AT1R-expressing HEK cellsAT1R functionally reconstituted via exosomesModulation of GPCR signalingPironti et al. (60), 2015
Pluripotent stem cellsCytoprotection of H9C2 cellsIschemia-reperfusion injuryWang et al. (21), 2015
Cardiac progenitors from human ESCsEnhanced recovery post-myocardial infarctionMyocardial infarction, heart failureKervadec et al. (22), 2016

ApoE−/− = apolipoprotein-deficient mice; CDC = cardiosphere-derived cell; ESC = embryonic stem cell; EV = extracellular vesicle; GPCR = G protein coupled receptor; HEK = human embryonic kidney; HUVEC = human umbilical vein endothelial cell; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.