Table 2

Characteristics of U.S. Adults by BP Levels and Antihypertensive Medication Use Based on the 2011 to 2014 NHANES

SBP/DBP Categories Among U.S. Adults Not Taking
Antihypertensive Medication (mm Hg)
Taking Antihypertensive Medication (n = 2,587)
<120/80 (n = 3,827)120–129/<80 (n = 1,114)130–139/80–89 (n = 1,276)≥140/90 (n = 819)
Percentage of U.S. population42.3 (40.3–44.3)12.1 (11.0–13.3)13.7 (12.7–14.9)7.7 (6.8–8.7)24.1 (22.4–26.0)
Population characteristics
 Age, yrs38.8 ± 0.445.0 ± 0.747.1 ± 0.754.6 ± 0.661.6 ± 0.3
 Male41.160.458.058.145.0
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white63.566.266.763.771.2
  Non-Hispanic black9.110.811.614.514.8
  Non-Hispanic Asian6.54.94.76.03.4
  Hispanic18.214.914.012.48.7
 Cigarette smoking19.823.820.621.015.5
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl187.6 ± 1.0195.3 ± 1.1201.0 ± 1.8206.3 ± 2.1190.2 ± 1.3
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl54.2 ± 0.451.9 ± 0.652.8 ± 0.754.0 ± 0.951.6 ± 0.5
 Statin use6.712.012.013.547.8
 Diabetes3.77.69.114.126.7
 Reduced eGFR2.32.33.48.720.8
 Albuminuria4.76.19.415.617.6
 SBP, mm Hg108.9 ± 0.2124.2 ± 0.1128.0 ± 0.3148.3 ± 0.9130.7 ± 0.6
 DBP, mm Hg66.5 ± 0.370.4 ± 0.478.6 ± 0.382.5 ± 0.771.1 ± 0.4
Mean 10-yr predicted CVD risk2.4 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.25.9 ± 0.313.1 ± 0.617.8 ± 0.4
 High risk, %7.515.119.846.161.8
10-yr risk categories
 <5%85.669.763.537.421.7
 5% to <10%6.915.216.716.416.6
 10% to <20%3.26.810.519.819.7
 ≥20%1.54.75.120.420.1
History of CVD2.93.64.26.021.9

Values are % (95% confidence interval), mean ± standard error, or %. U.S. adults were grouped into the higher category of SBP and DBP. For example, if a person had SBP of 146 mm Hg and DBP of 82 mm Hg, they were grouped into the ≥140/90 mm Hg category. Reduced eGFR was defined by levels <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Albuminuria was defined by an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g.

CI = confidence interval; CVD = cardiovascular disease; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • 10-year predicted risk was calculated using the Pooled Cohort risk equations. Mean risk was calculated among adults without a history of CVD.

  • High risk defined as a 10-year predicted cardiovascular disease risk ≥10% or history of CVD.