Table 9

Reasons for Nonadherence (World Health Organization)

PatientPerceived lack of effect
Poor health literacy
Physical impairment (vision, cognition)
Depression and social isolation
Cognitive impairment
Medical conditionHigh HF regimen complexity
Polypharmacy due to multiple comorbidities
TherapyFrequency of dosing
Polypharmacy
Side effects
SocioeconomicOut-of-pocket cost
Difficult access to pharmacy
Lack of support
Health systemPoor communication
Silos of care
No automatic refills

HF = heart failure.