Table 1

Clinical Trial Participation of Women Across CVD Areas

Cardiovascular AreaNumber of Drug ApprovalsTotal Enrollment, NWomen Enrolled, nPercentage of Women Among Trial Participants, % (Range)Percentage of Women Among Disease Population
Acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction343,37711,93228 (26–28)43
Atrial fibrillation576,31128,88438 (35–47)36; 49
Coronary artery disease (including angina)349,19011,77724 (24–25)43
Heart failure315,9973,80224 (22–40)40; 53
Hypertension1535,77916,56046 (27–53)52
Pulmonary arterial hypertension73,7632,90777 (74–81)57
Total36224,41775,86234

CVD = cardiovascular disease.

  • References and calculations are presented in Online Tables 1 and 2.

  • Gender-stratified prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a representative population was not available. Two percentages were provided; one based on age-adjusted prevalence using published population-based studies (36%) and the other based on a cohort of atrial fibrillation patients within Kaiser Permanente of Northern California (49%).

  • Trials for heart failure drugs were conducted only among patients with reduced ejection fraction. Gender-stratified prevalence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was not available in a representative population. Two percentages were provided; one based on prevalence of all heart failure patients in the United States (53%) and the other based on the Framingham cohort with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (40%).