Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Men and Women With HFrEF

Women (n = 3,357)Men (n = 12,058)p Value
Age, yrs65.10 ± 11.963.10 ± 11.5<0.0001
Age group<0.001
 ≤40 yrs104 (3.1)464 (3.8)
 41–55 yrs584 (17.4)2,374 (19.7)
 56–70 yrs1,436 (42.8)5,832 (48.4)
 >70 yrs1,233 (36.7)3,388 (28.1)
Region<0.001
 North America132 (3.9)647 (5.4)
 Latin America698 (20.8)1,854 (15.4)
 Western Europe and other733 (21.8)3,221 (26.7)
 Central Europe1,113 (33.2)3,657 (30.3)
 Asia-Pacific681 (20.3)2,679 (22.2)
Race<0.001
 Caucasian2,128 (63.4)8,008 (66.4)
 Black166 (4.9)371 (3.1)
 Asian664 (19.8)2,609 (21.6)
 Others399 (11.9)1,070 (8.9)
SBP, mm Hg123.9 ± 17.0122.0 ± 16.7<0.0001
Heart rate, beats/min72.8 ± 11.771.9 ± 12.4<0.0001
BMI, kg/m227.1 (24–32)27.1 (24–31)0.136
Weight category<0.001
 Underweight118 (3.5)189 (1.6)
 Normal1,005 (30.0)3,560 (29.6)
 Overweight1,106 (33.0)4,764 (39.6)
 Obese1,120 (33.4)3,524 (29.2)
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation (history)1,093 (32.6)4,388 (36.4)<0.0001
 Hypertension2,369 (70.6)7,903 (65.5)<0.0001
 Coronary artery disease1,444 (43.0)6,755 (56.0)<0.0001
  Myocardial infarction1,007 (30.0)5,474 (45.4)<0.0001
  Unstable angina307 (9.1)1,414 (11.7)<0.0001
  Stable angina698 (20.8)2,409 (20.0)0.299
  Prior PCI445 (13.3)2,735 (22.7)<0.0001
   Ischemic etiology24.235.2
   Nonischemic2.33.5
  Prior CABG226 (6.7)2,055 (17.0)<0.0001
   Ischemic etiology12.927.6
   Nonischemic0.71.0
 Clinically significant valve disease178 (5.3)553 (4.6)0.084
 Cerebrovascular disease362 (10.8)1,574 (13.1)0.004
  Stroke248 (7.4)969 (8.0)0.218
  Known carotid artery disease69 (2.1)443 (3.7)<0.0001
 Peripheral arterial disease93 (2.0)719 (6.0)<0.0001
  Prior lower limb revascularization28 (0.8)233 (1.9)<0.0001
  Intermittent claudication78 (2.3)596 (4.9)<0.0001
 Asthma173 (5.2)354 (2.9)<0.0001
 COPD285 (8.5)1,582 (13.1)<0.0001
 Diabetes1,041 (31.0)3,810 (31.6)0.517
 Renal disease392 (11.7)1,671 (13.9)0.001
 Cancer153 (4.6)505 (4.2)0.349
 Anemia700 (20.9)2,610 (21.7)0.3221
Lifestyle habits
 Smoking status<0.001
  Never smoked2,694 (80.3)5,427 (45.0)
  Ex-smoker456 (13.6)4,729 (39.2)
  Current smoker207 (6.2)1,902 (15.8)
 Alcohol, U/day<0.001
  <13,269 (97.4)10,273 (85.2)
  1–279 (2.4)1,442 (12.0)
  >28 (0.2)342 (2.8)

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), median (interquartile range), or %.

BMI = body mass index; CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; SBP = systolic blood pressure.

  • 29 were missing.

  • Hemoglobin <130 g/l (men), <120 g/l (women)