Table 2

Heart Failure: Clinical Characteristics, Investigations, and Treatment in Men and Women With HFrEF

Women (n = 3,357)Men (n = 12,058)p Value
HF etiology<0.001
 Ischemic1,677 (50.0)7,289 (60.5)
 Nonischemic1,494 (44.5)4,277 (35.5)
 Other186 (5.5)492 (4.1)
Time since HF diagnosis<0.001
 <1 yr1,168 (34.8)3,716 (30.8)
 1–5 yrs1,267 (37.7)4,558 (37.8)
 >5 yrs922 (27.5)3,780 (31.4)
NYHA functional class<0.001
 I92 (2.7)470 (3.9)
 II2,182 (65.0)8,577 (71.2)
 III1,046 (31.2)2,915 (24.2)
 IV37 (1.1)83 (0.7)
Prior hospitalization for HF1,951 (58.1)7,511 (62.3)<0.0001
LVEF, %29.6 ± 5.928.8 ± 6.0<0.0001
KCCQ clinical summary score71.3 (53.4–86.5)81.3 (65.1–92.7)0.001
Symptoms/signs
Dyspnea at rest204 (6.1)408 (3.4)<0.0001
Dyspnea on effort2,976 (88.7)10,191 (84.7)<0.0001
Orthopnea290 (8.6)681 (5.7)<0.0001
PND237 (7.1)519 (4.3)<0.0001
Edema787 (23.4)2,403 (19.9)<0.0001
Rales<0.001
 Basilar only350 (10.4)947 (7.9)
 Greater than one-third of lung field9 (0.3)59 (0.5)
Third heart sound341 (10.2)1,048 (8.7)0.009
JVD365 (10.9)1,112 (9.2)0.004
ECG findings
Atrial fibrillation732 (21.8)2,905 (24.1)0.006
LBBB750 (22.3)2,332 (19.3)0.0001
RBBB182 (5.4)956 (7.9)<0.0001
QRS duration, ms104 (86–140)110 (94–140)<0.0001
Laboratory investigations
NT-proBNP, pg/ml1,448 (801–2,805)1,406 (761–2,770)0.158
Hemoglobin, g/l129.9 ± 14.4141.0 ± 15.7<0.0001
Creatinine, μmol/l81.0 ± 21.6100.0 ± 25.5<0.0001
eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m268.2 ± 25.071.2 ± 21.3<0.0001
eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m21,267 (37.7)3,643 (30.2)<0.001
Baseline treatments and prior interventions
Diuretic2,698 (80.4)9,638 (79.9)0.574
 Loop diuretics2,523 (75.2)9,135 (75.8)0.4721
 Thiazides265 (7.9)789 (6.5)0.0061
Digitalis1,089 (32.4)3,692 (30.6)0.048
Beta-blocker3,075 (91.6)11,168 (92.6)0.049
MRA1,555 (46.3)5,718 (47.4)0.2599
ACE inhibitor2,842 (84.7)10,697 (88.7)<0.0001
ARB551 (16.4)1,434 (11.9)<0.0001
CCB§330 (9.8)1,035 (8.6)0.0245
Statins1,598 (47.6)6,787 (56.3)<0.0001
Aspirin1,557 (46.4)6,393 (53.0)<0.0001
Anticoagulants897 (26.7)3,906 (32.4)<0.0001
 In patients with atrial fibrillation on ECG67.171.20.029
 In patients with atrial fibrillation history60.666.6<0.001
 CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥267.171.50.019
Pacemaker310 (9.2)1,490 (12.4)<0.0001
ICD (including CRT-D)290 (8.6)2,001 (16.6)<0.0001
ICD only196 (5.8)1,371 (11.4)<0.0001
CRT-P or CRT-D137 (4.1)830 (6.9)<0.0001

Values are n (%), mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or %.

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CHA2DS2-VASc = congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65–74 years, sex category; CRT-D = cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator; CRT-P = cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacemaker; ECG = electrocardiogram; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; JVD = jugular venous distension; KCCQ = Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire; LBBB = left bundle branch block; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PND = paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; RBBB = right bundle branch block.

  • 13 were missing.

  • Proportion of total population.

  • Sixty-eight others or other combinations.

  • § Dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker (CCB).