Table 4

Random Effects Meta-Analysis

Studies
(N)
Participants
(N)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)p Value
Average age
 >73 yrs42407.26 (2.58–20.45)0.6145
 ≤73 yrs44494.95 (1.69–14.47)
Proportion of males
 ≥81%445615.47 (5.89–40.65)0.0040
 <81%31723.50 (2.59–4.73)
Diabetes
 >18%44544.27 (1.44–12.65)0.4113
 ≤18%42357.89 (2.95–21.11)
Current statin medication
 >67%42666.04 (2.24–16.31)0.9864
 ≤67%44235.96 (1.99–17.85)
Presentation
 Asymptomatic33943.50 (2.59–4.73)0.0065
 Symptomatic529511.71 (5.17–26.48)
MRI technology
 Multisequence44225.63 (1.96–16.21)0.8650
 Single sequence42676.41 (2.27–18.05)
Degree of stenosis
 High grade included31898.46 (2.59–27.63)0.4197
 High grade not included55004.77 (2.29–9.94)
Time MRI to symptoms
 <72 h210422.61 (5.19–98.48)0.2926
 <6 months31918.75 (3.28–23.31)
Region code
 Asia22272.59 (0.61–11.07)0.2304
 Europe, U.S.64627.03 (3.36–14.70)
Design
 Retrospective21374.40 (1.24–15.60)0.5727
 Prospective65526.85 (2.87–16.36)
Sample size
 Small (N < 70)529511.71 (5.18–26.47)0.0065
 Large (N > 70)33943.50 (2.59–4.73)
Study quality
 Sum ≤3.543444.63 (1.95–11.03)0.4833
 Sum >3.543457.40 (2.78–19.65)
Adjustment
 Not adjusted76233.83 (2.83–5.17)0.1532
 Adjusted16613.00 (2.50–67.70)

The random effects meta-analysis was performed on the relationship between MRI finding of plaque hemorrhage on a combined cerebrovascular event endpoint, stratified according to potential sources of heterogeneity.

CI = confidence interval; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

  • For difference.