Table 1

Baseline Characteristics According to Sex-Pooled Quartiles of HDL-C

Quartile 1
(n = 1,560)
Quartile 2
(n = 1,514)
Quartile 3
(n = 1,523)
Quartile 4
(n = 1,514)
p Value
HDL-C (mmol/l)0.85 ± 0.121.08 ± 0.121.28 ± 0.141.68 ± 0.31
 Male0.41–0.930.94–1.101.11–1.321.33–2.94
 Female0.50–1.121.13–1.361.37–1.641.65–2.94
Age (yrs)58.4 ± 10.660.1 ± 10.260.2 ± 10.461.5 ± 10.2<0.01
Male1,169 (75)1,105 (73)1,134 (75)1,134 (75)0.57
BMI (kg/m2)28.1 ± 4.327.1 ± 3.826.6 ± 3.825.5 ± 3.5<0.01
Waist circumference (cm)99.3 ± 11.996.4 ± 11.695.1 ± 11.292.0 ± 11.6<0.01
Metabolic syndrome1,353 (87)999 (66)564 (37)345 (23)<0.01
Type 2 diabetes mellitus370 (24)287 (19)216 (14)149 (10)<0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)139 ± 21141 ± 21141 ± 21144 ± 21<0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81 ± 1181 ± 1181 ± 1183 ± 11<0.01
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 1.34.9 ± 1.24.9 ± 1.15.1 ± 1.1<0.01
LDL-C (mmol/l)3.0 ± 1.13.0 ± 1.12.9 ± 1.02.8 ± 1.0<0.01
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.3 ± 1.41.7 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.31.2 ± 0.7<0.01
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)75 ± 1975 ± 1876 ± 1777 ± 180.04
Alcohol use during last year953 (61)1,000 (66)1,114 (73)1,250 (83)<0.01
Current smoking628 (40)512 (34)453 (30)425 (28)<0.01
Lipid-lowering medication956 (61)997 (66)1,026 (67)979 (65)<0.01
Intensive lipid-lowering medication484 (31)520 (34)544 (36)498 (33)0.04
Localization of vascular disease
 Coronary artery disease961 (62)979 (65)928 (61)819 (54)<0.01
 Cerebrovascular disease427 (27)368 (24)453 (30)503 (33)<0.01
 Peripheral arterial disease362 (23)311 (21)262 (17)298 (20)<0.01
 Abdominal aortic aneurysm157 (10)138 (9)123 (8)124 (8)0.18

Values are mean ± SD, range, or n (%).

BMI = body mass index; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.

  • Available for patients included from 1999 onwards.

  • Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation.

  • Defined as lipid-lowering medication lowering LDL-C with 40%.