Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Patients With AF and Controls Included in the Final Study Population

VariableParoxysmal AF (n = 90)Persistent AF (n = 90)Controls (n = 90)p Value
Age (yrs)58.6 ± 10.261.2 ± 10.959.7 ± 13.10.31
Men69 (76.7%)72 (80%)68 (75.6%)0.76
Hypertension46 (51.1%)47 (52.2%)45 (50%)0.96
 Grade 133 (36.7%)28 (31.1%)33 (36.7%)0.66
 Grade 213 (14.4%)19 (21.1%)12 (13.3%)0.31
 Medications39 (43.3%)41 (45.6%)36 (40%)0.75
  Beta-blockers33 (36.7%)36 (40%)27 (30%)0.36
  ACE inhibitors/ARBs28 (31.1%)28 (31.1%)25 (27.8%)0.85
Diabetes5 (5.6%)7 (7.8%)5 (5.6%)0.78
Heart disease6 (6.7%)9 (10%)7 (7.8%)0.71
 Coronary artery disease3 (3.3%)3 (3.3%)4 (4.4%)0.90
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy1 (1.1%)2 (2.2%)1 (1.1%)0.78
 Hypokinetic cardiomyopathy1 (1.1%)3 (3.3%)2 (2.2%)0.60
 Congenital heart disease1 (1.1 %)1 (1.1%)0 (0%)0.60
AF duration (months)84.2 ± 70.485.2 ± 91.20.80
Time since persistent AF (mo)15 ± 28
CHA2DS2-VASc score
 027 (30%)24 (26.7%)0.74
 134 (37.8%)24 (26.7%)0.15
 219 (21.1%)22 (24.4%)0.72
 >210 (11.1%)20 (22.2%)0.07
Dyslipidemia26 (28.9%)21 (23.3%)24 (26.7%)0.69
Antiplatelet agents/OAC
 OAC39 (43.3%)79 (87.8%)0 (0%)<0.01
 Aspirin 100 mg/day34 (37.8%)9 (10%)11 (12.2%)<0.01
 None17 (18.9%)2 (2.2%)79 (87.8%)<0.01
Smoking habit26 (28.9%)26 (28.9%)31 (34.4%)0.65
Education level2.6 ± 0.92.6 ± 0.92.5 ± 1.00.71

Values are mean ± SD or counts (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; AF = atrial fibrillation; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; OAC = oral anticoagulation.

  • The CHA2DS2-VASc score consists of congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, hypertension, age, diabetes, stroke or transient ischemic attack, thromboembolism, and vascular disease.

  • Education level: 1 = up to 5 years, 2 = up to 8 years, 3 = up to 13 years, 4 = more than 13 years.