Table 2

Relative Risk of Myocardial Infarction Associated With Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in 20,721 Men

Lifestyle FactorsLow-Risk GroupRR (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
Diet
 Low risk (Recommended Food Score top quintile vs. the rest)177 (18)0.76 (0.65–0.90)0.82 (0.69–0.96)
Alcohol consumption
 Low risk (10–30 g/day vs. the rest)448 (39)0.92 (0.82–1.03)0.89 (0.79–1.00)
Smoking
 Low risk (no smoking vs. the rest)689 (58)0.63 (0.57–0.70)0.64 (0.57–0.71)
Physical activity
 Low risk (40 min/day walking/bicycling and 1 h vs. <1 h weekly exercise)475 (30)0.93 (0.83–1.05)0.97 (0.86–1.09)
Abdominal adiposity
 Low risk (<95 vs. ≥95 cm waist circumference)632 (52)0.87 (0.78–0.97)0.88 (0.78–0.98)

Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

CI = confidence interval; RR = relative risk.

  • Estimated from a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age (continuous), educational achievement (≤10, 10 to 12, >12 years), marital status (single, married/cohabiting, divorced, widowed), family history of myocardial infarction (yes/no), use of aspirin (yes/no), non-Recommended Food Score (quintiles), and total energy intake (continuous).

  • Adjusted for covariates in Model 1 and mutually adjusted for all the other low-risk lifestyle factors.

  • The Recommended Food Scores included foods with a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health. A score of 1, adding up to a maximum of 25, was assigned for regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, reduced-fat dairy products, whole grains, and fish.