Table 19

Stages of Severe Pulmonic Regurgitation

StageDefinitionValve AnatomyValve HemodynamicsHemodynamic ConsequencesSymptoms
C, DSevere PR
  • Distorted or absent leaflets, annular dilation

  • Color jet fills RVOT

  • CW jet density and contour: dense laminar flow with steep deceleration slope; may terminate abruptly

  • Paradoxical septal motion (volume overload pattern)

  • RV enlargement

  • None or variable and dependent on cause of PR and RV function

CW indicates continuous wave; PR, pulmonic regurgitation; RV, right ventricular; and RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract (247).