Table 2

HRs, PAFs, and Estimated Decreased Life Expectancy by Running and Other Mortality Predictors

Mortality PredictorAll–Cause MortalityCardiovascular Mortality
HR (95% CI)PAF, %Decreased Life Expectancy, yrsHR (95% CI)PAF, %Decreased Life Expectancy, yrs
Nonrunner1.24 (1.13–1.37)163.01.40 (1.18–1.66)254.1
Current smoker1.67 (1.54–1.80)117.01.69 (1.49–1.92)126.3
Overweight or obesity1.16 (1.08–1.25)82.01.43 (1.26–1.63)204.4
Parental CVD1.20 (1.12–1.29)72.51.38 (1.23–1.54)133.9
Abnormal ECG1.55 (1.42–1.70)76.02.43 (2.14–2.77)1710.7
Hypertension1.46 (1.36–1.57)155.21.94 (1.72–2.18)288.0
Diabetes1.36 (1.23–1.51)34.21.53 (1.31–1.79)65.1
Hypercholesterolemia1.06 (0.98–1.13)20.71.32 (1.18–1.48)103.4

CVD = cardiovascular disease; ECG = electrocardiogram.

  • Hazard ratios (HRs), population attributable fractions (PAFs), and decreased life expectancy were adjusted for baseline age (years), sex, examination year, and all other mortality predictors in the table. The reference category for each HR and PAF analysis includes individuals who did not have the particular mortality predictor.

  • PAF was computed as Pc(1 – 1/HRadj), for which Pc is the prevalence of the mortality predictor among mortality cases and HRadj is the multivariable HR for mortality associated with the specified mortality predictor. Pc (ordered as listed in the table) was 83.7, 28.4, 59.6, 40.9, 19.0, 47.4, 12.6, and 33.9 for all-cause mortality and 86.7, 28.4, 66.7, 46.2, 29.2, 58.0, 16.6, and 41.6 for cardiovascular mortality.

  • Decreased life expectancy was compared by beta coefficients for mortality associated with each year of age, with the beta coefficient difference in mortality for each mortality predictor using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.