Table 2

Weight Loss

≥10% WL Group (N = 135)3%–9% WL Group (N = 103)< 3% WL Group (N = 117)p Value
BaselineFollow-Upp ValueBaselineFollow-Upp ValueBaselineFollow-Upp Value
Weight, kg101 ± 1785 ± 14<0.00199 ± 1693 ± 16<0.001100 ± 17102 ± 18<0.001<0.001
BMI, kg/m233.7 ± 4.728.4 ± 4.0<0.00132.7 ± 4.430.8 ± 4.2<0.00133.0 ± 4.933.5 ± 5.3<0.001<0.001
Mean SBP, mm Hg147 ± 17129 ± 12<0.001144 ± 17134 ± 14<0.001146 ±17139 ± 15<0.001<0.001
DM with HbA1c ≥740 (30)5 (4)28 (27)15 (15)34 (29)23 (20)<0.001
Medication use
 Anti-HTN1.0 ± 0.90.5 ± 0.6<0.0010.7 ± 0.80.7 ± 0.60.740.8 ± 1.01.0 ± 0.70.01<0.001
 On lipid Rx66 (49)37 (27)45 (44)38 (37)56 (48)54 (46)<0.001
 AAD1.1 ± 0.70.1 ± 0.4<0.0011.0 ± 0.70.5 ± 0.6<0.0010.8 ± 0.80.4 ± 0.6<0.001<0.001
Serology and lipid profile
 hsCRP, mg/l5.1 ± 9.21.2 ± 2.4<0.0014.4 ± 5.82.7 ± 3.20.0044.1 ± 2.94.9 ± 5.00.001<0.001
 Fasting insulin, mU/l18.3 ± 6.68.4 ± 3.9<0.00116.9 ± 6.114.8 ± 9.40.0614.5 ± 6.917.3 ± 9.60.03<0.001
 LDL level, mg/dl116 ± 3789 ± 31<0.001116 ± 3593 ± 23<0.001104 ± 35108 ± 310.05<0.001
 HDL level, mg/dl50 ± 1558 ± 15<0.00146 ± 1150 ± 110.0142 ± 1146 ± 110.79<0.001
 TG level, mg/dl141 ± 6297 ± 35<0.001141 ± 53115 ± 53<0.001141 ± 62159 ± 620.03<0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl189 ± 38158 ± 35<0.001185 ± 42162 ± 27<0.001178 ± 42178 ± 350.51<0.001
Echocardiogram
 Indexed LA volume, ml/m237.6 ± 5.430.9 ± 6.4<0.00139.5 ± 6.234.7 ± 10.0<0.00139.0 ± 3.840.4 ± 5.90.02<0.001
 IV septum, mm11.7 ± 2.010.1 ± 0.70.00111.5 ± 2.010.9 ± 2.00.0311.5 ± 2.011.4 ± 2.00.33<0.001
 LVEDD, cm5.0 ± 0.64.6 ± 0.9<0.0015.0 ± 0.64.9 ± 0.70.015.0 ± 0.65.0 ± 0.60.82<0.001
 E/E' ratio12.8 ± 4.28.5 ± 3.3<0.00111.9 ± 4.69.1 ± 3.2<0.00111.6 ± 3.513.7 ± 5.40.001<0.001
AF symptom score
 AF frequency (1–10)7.0 ± 1.53.0 ± 1.9<0.0017.0 ± 1.33.7 ± 1.7<0.0017.1 ± 1.54.6 ± 1.6<0.001<0.001
 AF duration (1.25–10)7.1 ± 1.84.2 ± 2.5<0.0016.7 ± 1.84.9 ± 2.4<0.0016.8 ± 1.75.4 ± 2.1<0.001<0.001
 AF episode severity (1–10)7.0 ± 1.93.3 ± 1.8<0.0017.1 ± 1.44.3 ± 2.0<0.0016.8 ± 1.55.4 ± 2.1<0.001<0.001
 AF symptom subscale (0–35)19.1 ± 5.99.2 ± 5.0<0.00118.1 ± 4.911.1 ± 4.9<0.00118.2 ± 5.113.6 ± 4.4<0.001<0.001
 Global well-being (1–10)2.7 ± 0.88.1 ± 1.2<0.0012.4 ± 0.96.1 ± 0.9<0.0012.5 ± 0.95.7 ± 2.00.001<0.001

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

Impact of weight loss on cardiac risk factors, cardiac structure, and atrial fibrillation (AF) severity from baseline to follow-up.

AAD = antiarrhythmic drug; HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; HTN = hypertension; Rx = prescription; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • p Value refers to within group difference (baseline to follow-up).

  • p Value refers to between group differences over time (group–time interaction).

  • Median follow-up: 48.4 ± 18.2 months for group 1, 46.0 ± 16.7 months for group 2, and 48.3 ± 18.4 months for group 3.