Table 1

Definition of Study Endpoints

Exercise EndpointDefinition
Primary endpoints
 Elevated resting HRHR ≥80 beats/min at rest (10)
 Abnormal HRR(HR at peak exercise – HR at 1 min of recovery) ≤12 beats/min for ETTs involving an active cool-down (11,31) and ≤18 beats/min for ETTs involving passive recovery (31,32)
Secondary endpoints
 METsWorkload estimated from treadmill speed and grade
 % APMHR achievedWhere APMHR = 220 beats/min – age (33)
 Rate-pressure productSystolic BP × HR
 Abnormal systolic BP response to exerciseExercise-induced decrease in systolic BP below standing baseline value or failure to increase systolic BP by ≥20 mm Hg from baseline during exercise (34)
 Duke treadmill scoreExercise time – (5 × ST-segment deviation in mm) – (4 × exercise angina score: 0 = none, 1 = nonlimiting, and 2 = exercise-limiting)
Score ≥+5 = low risk, –10 to +4 = moderate risk, and ≤–11 = high risk (35)
 Chronotropic incompetenceFailure to obtain ≥62% of adjusted HR reserve during exercise for patients treated with beta-blockers (36,37) or
failure to obtain ≥80% of adjusted HR reserve during exercise for patients not treated with beta-blockers (36,37)
Adjusted HR reserve = (peak HR – resting HR)/(APMHR – resting HR)
 Abnormal reserve pulse pressure(Pulse pressure at peak exercise – pulse pressure at rest) <44 mm Hg, where pulse pressure = systolic BP – diastolic BP (38)

APMHR = age-predicted maximal heart rate; BP = blood pressure; ETT = exercise treadmill test; HR = heart rate; HRR = heart rate recovery; METs = metabolic equivalents.