Table 1

Baseline Clinical Characteristics and Comorbidities (N = 489)

Age, yrs83.2 ± 8.7
Men, %47.9 (234/489)
Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality, %10.3 ± 5.5
 <1055.6 (272/489)
 10–1527.2 (133/489)
 >1517.2 (84/489)
Logistic euroSCORE, %22.6 ± 17.1
New York Heart Association functional class III/IV91.8 (449/489)
Diabetes mellitus41.5 (203/489)
 Insulin controlled18.4 (90/489)
Cardiac history
 Previous stroke13.7 (67/488)
 Coronary artery disease81.8 (400/489)
 Previous coronary artery bypass graft39.5 (193/489)
 Previous percutaneous coronary intervention37.0 (181/489)
 Previous balloon artic valvuloplasty20.4 (100/489)
Prohibitive anatomy
 Severe aortic calcification17.2 (84/488)
 Hostile mediastinum11.9 (58/488)
Comorbidities
 Severe chronic lung disease23.5 (115/489)
 Home oxygen29.9 (146/489)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index5.3 ± 2.3
Frailty
 Anemia with previous transfusion22.8 (108/473)
 Albumin <3.3 g/dl18.2 (88/484)
 5-m gait speed >6 s84.2 (283/336)
Disabilities
 Assisted living27.6 (135/489)
 ≥2 Katz ADL deficits20.9 (102/489)
 Wheelchair bound16.6 (81/489)

Values are mean ± SD or frequency, % (n/N).

ADL = activities of daily living; euroSCORE = European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation.