Table 2

Summary of the Main RCTs Regarding Use of Aspirin, Statins, Beta-Blockers, and ACE Inhibitors in Secondary Prevention

Study (Ref. #)Year PublishedNo. of ParticipantsMean Follow-Up (yrs)Age Range (yrs)Mean Age (yrs)Eligible PopulationPlacebo-ControlledDrug
Aspirin
 Cardiff-I (23)19741,2391NR55Post-MIYesAspirin
 CDP-A (24)19761,5291.8NR56Post-MIYesAspirin
 Cardiff-II (25)19791,6821NR56Post-MIYesAspirin
 PARIS (26)19801,2163.430–7456Post-MIYesAspirin and persantine
 AMIS (27)19804,524>330–6955Post-MIYesAspirin
Statins
 4S (12)19944,4445.435–70NRHistory of angina or MIYesSimvastatin
 CARE (11)19964,159521–7559Post-MIYesPravastatin
 LIPID (28)19989,0146.131–7562Post-MI or UAYesPravastatin
 GISSI-P (29)20004,271219–9060Post-MIYesPravastatin
 LIPS (30)20021,6773.918–8060Post-PCIYesFluvastatin
 ALLIANCE (31)20042,4424.5≥1861CHDYesAtorvastatin
 PROVE IT (32)20044,1622≥1858Post-ACSNoPravastatin and atorvastatin
 A to Z (33)20044,497221–8061Post-ACSNoSimvastatin (low vs. high dose)
 TNT (34)200510,0014.935–7561CHDNoAtorvastatin (low vs. high dose)
 IDEAL (35)20058,8884.8≤8062Post-MINoAtorvastatin and Simvastatin
 SEARCH (36)201012,0646.718–8064Post-MINoSimvastatin (low vs. high dose)
Beta-blockers
 Multicenter International (37)19753,038Up to 3≤7055Post-MIYesPractolol
 Julian et al. (38)19821,456130–6955Post-MIYesSotalol
 EIS (39)19841,741135–6954Post-MIYesOxprenolol
 Salathia et al. (40)19858001NRNRSuspected MIYesMetoprolol
 LIT (41)19872,3951.645–7458Post-MIYesMetoprolol
 CAPRICORN (42)20011,9591.3≥1863Post-MI with LV dysfunctionYesCarvedilol
ACE inhibitors
 SAVE (43)19922,2313.521–8059Post-MI and LV dysfunctionYesCaptopril
 TRACE (44)19951,7492–4.2≥1867Post-MI and LV dysfunctionYesTrandolapril
 AIRE (45)19932,0061.3≥1865Post-MI with HFYesRamipril
 ISIS-4 (46)199558,0501.3NRNRSuspected MIYesCaptopril, mononitrate, and magnesium sulfate
 QUIET (47)20011,7252.2518–7558Post-PCI or atherectomyYesQuinapril
 CAMELOT (48)20041997230–7957CHDNoEnalapril and amlodipine
 EUROPA (49)200312,2184.2≥1860SIHD without HFYesPerindopril
 PEACE (17)20048,2904.8≥5064SIHD and preserved LV functionYesTrandolapril

This table is based on the most comprehensive published meta-analyses (1–5), and includes randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with >1,000 patients and >1-year follow-up.

4S = Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study; A to Z = Combined use of low-molecular-weight heparin with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban and efficacy of early aggressive simvastatin therapy; AIRE = Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy; ALLIANCE = Aggressive Lipid-Lowering Initiation Abates New Cardiac Events study; AMIS = Aspirin Myocardial Infarction Study; CAMELOT = Comparison of Amlodipine vs Enalapril to Limit Occurrences of Thrombosis; CAPRICORN = Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in LV Dysfunction; CARE = Cholesterol and Recurrent Event; CHD = coronary heart disease; CDP-A = Coronary Drug Project Aspirin Study; EIS = European Infarction Study; EUROPA = EURopean trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease; GISSI-P = Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico-Prevenzione; IDEAL = Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering; ISIS-4 = Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival; LIPID = Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease; LIPS = Lescol Intervention Prevention Study; LIT = Lopressor Intervention Trial; NR = not reported; PARIS = Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study; PEACE = Prevention of Events with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition; PROVE IT = Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy–Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction; QUIET = QUinapril Ischemic Event Trial; SAVE = Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Trial; SEARCH = Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine; TNT = Treating to New Targets; TRACE = Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation; UA = unstable angina; other abbreviations as in Table 1.