Table 3

Common Side Effects and Interactions of Aspirin, Statins, Beta-Blockers, and ACE Inhibitors in the Elderly

Drug ClassSide Effects in Older PatientsDrug–Disease InteractionsDrug–Drug Interactions
AspirinGastrointestinal bleeding, dyspepsia, tinnitus, skin reactionsAsthma (bronchospasm)
Gastrointestinal bleeding history, dehydration, and hypertension (bleeding)
Anticoagulants, antiplatelets and antithrombins (bleeding)
NSAIDs (peptic ulcer)
StatinsMyalgias, confusion, renal insufficiency, liver toxicityHypothyroidism, CKD, diabetes mellitus (statin-induced myopathy)Fibrates (myopathy)
Amiodarone, erythromycin, diltiazem, azole antifungals, fibric acids (P450 system interactions)
Beta-blockersConfusion, fatigue, bronchospasm, conduction block, claudication, depression, incontinence, hypoglycemiaCOPD (bronchospasm)
PAD (intermittent claudication)
Raynaud syndrome (increased symptoms)
CHF (acute decompensation)
Conduction disease (heart block)
Sulfonylureas (hypoglycemia)
Calcium-channel blockers (chronotropic incompetence)
ACE inhibitorsFalls, dizziness, hypotension, hyperkalemia, fatigue, acute kidney injury, coughCKD (hyperkalemia and renal failure)Diuretics (hypotension)
NSAIDs (renal failure)

COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PAD = peripheral artery disease; other abbreviations as in Table 1.