Table 2

Summary of Meta-Analysis Effects of Exercise-Based CR on Clinical Event Outcomes

OutcomeNumber of Participants
(Number of Studies)
Number of Events/ParticipantsRR (95% CI)Statistical Heterogeneity I2 Statistic Chi-Square Test
(p Value)
GRADE Quality of the Evidence
InterventionComparator
All-cause mortality (all studies)12,455 (47)838/6,424865/6,0310.96 (0.88–1.04)0% (0.58)+++−
moderate
 Follow-up 6–12 months8,800 (29)226/4,573238/4,2270.88 (0.73–1.05)0% (0.82)
 Follow-up >12–36 months6,823 (13)338/3,495417/3,3280.89 (0.78–1.01)0% (0.47)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs3,828 (11)476/1,902493/1,9260.91 (0.75–1.10)35% (0.12)
CV mortality (all studies)7,469 (27)292/3,850375/3,6190.74 (0.64–0.86)0% (0.70)+++−
moderate
 Follow-up 6–12 months4,884 (15)105/2,561107/2,3230.90 (0.69–1.17)0% (0.72)
 Follow-up >12–36 months3,833 (7)199/1,971239/1,8620.77 (0.63–0.93)5% (0.38)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs1,392 (8)56/690100/7020.58 (0.43–0.78)0% (0.91)
Fatal and/or nonfatal MI (all studies)9,717 (36)356/4,951387/4,7660.90 (0.79–1.04)0% (0.48)++−−
low
 Follow-up 6–12 months6,911 (20)126/3,543139/3,3680.85 (0.67–1.08)0% (0.58)
 Follow-up >12–36 months5,644 (11)251/2,877222/2,7671.09 (0.91–1.29)0% (0.72)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs1,560 (10)65/776102/7840.67 (0.50–0.90)0% (0.67)
CABG (all studies)5,891 (29)208/3,021212/2,8700.96 (0.80–1.16)0% (0.86)+++−
moderate
 Follow-up 6–12 months4,563 (21)123/2,351121/2,2120.99 (0.77–1.26)0% (0.83)
 Follow-up >12–36 months2,755 (98)122/1,379123/1,3760.98 (0.78–1.25)0% (0.93)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs675 (4)19/33329/3420.66 (0.34–1.27)18% (0.30)
PCI (all studies)4,012 (16)171/2013197/19990.85 (0.70–1.04)0% (0.59)+++−
moderate
 Follow-up 6–12 months3,564 (13)90/1,77899/1,7860.92 (0.64–1.33)16% (0.30)
 Follow-up >12–36 months1,983 (6)114/996116/9870.96 (0.69–1.35)26% (0.24)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs567 (3)28/28137/2860.76 (0.48–1.20)0% (0.81)
Hospital admissions (all studies)3,030 (15)407/1,556453/1,4740.82 (0.70–0.96)34.5% (0.10)++−−
low
 Follow-up of 6–12 months1,120 (9)82/574116/5460.65 (0.46–0.92)37% (0.14)
 Follow-up >12–36 months1,916 (6)322/984330/9320.95 (0.84–1.07)0% (0.50)
 Follow-up longer than 3 yrs0 (0)0/00/0Not estimableNot estimable

CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; CI = confidence interval; CR = cardiac rehabilitation; CV = cardiovascular; MI = myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; RR = relative risk.

  • Random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding of outcome assessors were poorly described in >50% of included studies; bias likely.

  • Funnel plots and/or Egger test suggest evidence of asymmetry. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence: high = further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect; moderate = further research is likely to have an important effect on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate; low = further research is very likely to have an important effect on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. Very low quality: we are very uncertain about the estimate.