Table 1

Patient Demographics (VINDICATE) at Randomization: Intention-to-Treat Population

Total (n = 163)Placebo (n = 83)Vitamin D (n = 80)
Male129 (79.1)62 (74.7)67 (83.8)
Age, yrs68.7 ± 13.1069.0 ± 13.7868.5 ± 12.45
Caucasian146 (90.0)74 (89.0)72 (90.0)
Etiology
 Ischemic heart disease94 (57.7)50 (60.2)44 (55.0)
 Nonischemic cardiomyopathy61 (37.4)29 (34.9)32 (40.0)
 Valvular heart disease8 (4.9)4 (4.8)4 (5.0)
Diabetes mellitus37 (22.7)20 (24.1)17 (21.3)
BMI, kg/m230.0 ± 11.4130.3 ± 14.3629.8 ± 7.26
NYHA functional class
 II145 (89.0)71 (85.5)74 (92.5)
 III18 (11.0)12 (14.5)6 (7.5)
Beta blockers155 (95.1)79 (95.2)76 (95.0)
ACEi/ARB150 (92.0)76 (91.6)74 (92.5)
Furosemide dose, mg/day61.4 ± 46.3864.4 ± 52.0758.6 ± 41.00
Digoxin29 (18.0)15 (18.3)14 (17.7)
Spironolactone83 (51.2)41 (50.0)42 (52.5)
Device (ICD or CRT)48 (29.5)27 (32.5)21 (26.3)
Atrial fibrillation,68 (45.0)33 (42.9)35 (47.3)
Baseline heart rate, beats/min70.5 ± 13.1072.7 ± 14.7268.2 ± 10.86
Systolic BP, mm Hg120.3 ± 20.81122.9 ± 22.44117.6 ± 18.74
Diastolic BP, mm Hg71.2 ± 13.2172.8 ± 14.9670.0 ± 10.99
6-min walk test, m292.9 (120.35)283.7 (116.84)302.2 (123.81)
LVEF %26.1 ± 10.6826.5 ± 10.6225.6 ± 10.80
LVEDD, mm57.8 ± 7.5858.0 ± 6.4957.6 ± 8.62
LVESD, mm50.3 ± 8.5050.7 ± 7.5849.8 ± 9.42
LVEDV, ml163.0 ± 66.60164.1 ± 60.07161.8 ± 73.58
LVESV, ml115.4 ± 59.39119.4 ± 53.30111.0 ± 63.58
25(OH) Vitamin D, nmol/l37.3 ± 22.5636.4 ± 20.2438.2 ± 24.81
Parathyroid hormone, pmol/l11.4 ± 8.0911.7 ± 7.5011.0 ± 8.75
Creatinine, μmol/l96 ± 29.394.4 ± 29.4296.6 ± 29.26

Values are n (%) or mean ± SD. Conversion factors: vitamin D nmol/l · 0.4 = ng/ml; creatinine mmol/l · 0.11 = mg/dl; calcium mmol/l · 4 = mg/dl; parathyroid hormone pmol/l · 9.4 = pg/ml.

ACEi = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = aldosterone receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CRT = cardiac resynchronization therapy; ICD = implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LVEDD = left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEDV = left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESD = left ventricular end-systolic diameter; LVESV = left ventricular end-systolic volume; NYHA = New York Heart Association functional class; VINDICATE = VitamIN D treatIng patients with Chronic heArT failurE.