Table 5

Cardiovascular Characteristics Assessed at Rest and Post-Exercise in Asymptomatic (Stage B) and Symptomatic (Stage C) HFpEF

Stage B
(n = 60)
Stage C
(n = 207)
p Value
E/A
 Rest1.02 ± 0.320.95 ± 0.460.29
 Post-ex1.02 ± 0.251.23 ± 0.510.003
 Δ0.01 ± 0.240.29 ± 0.310.0001
DT, ms
 Rest208 ± 43232 ± 470.001
 Post-ex144 ± 31165 ± 370.0001
 Δ−64 ± 45−65 ± 460.85
e′ sept, cm/s
 Rest7.6 ± 1.95.8 ± 1.30.0001
 Post-ex10.4 ± 2.37.1 ± 1.80.0001
 Δ2.8 ± 1.71.2 ± 1.20.0001
E/e′
 Rest9.7 ± 1.711.6 ± 3.60.0001
 Post-ex9.0 ± 1.915.3 ± 5.00.0001
 Δ−0.6 ± 1.73.7 ± 2.80.0001
GLS, %
 Rest20.4 ± 2.218.4 ± 3.30.0001
 Post-ex23.3 ± 2.620.0 ± 3.50.0001
 Δ2.9 ± 2.01.6 ± 2.80.002
LVEDVI, ml/m2
 Rest46 ± 943 ± 110.09
 Post-ex46 ± 844 ± 110.23
 Δ−0.6 ± 4.11.4 ± 6.50.04
LVESVI, ml/m2
 Rest14 ± 612 ± 60.08
 Post-ex9 ± 311 ± 50.01
 Δ−5.1 ± 4.1−1.5 ± 3.40.0001
SVI, ml/m2
 Rest33 ± 631 ± 70.18
 Post-ex37 ± 634 ± 90.02
 Δ4.5 ± 4.83.0 ± 6.40.10
CO, l/min
 Rest4.5 ± 1.34.2 ± 1.20.12
 Post-ex10.0 ± 2.58.0 ± 2.80.0001
 Δ5.5 ± 1.73.8 ± 2.40.0001
LVEF, %
 Rest71 ± 972 ± 90.29
 Post-ex81 ± 676 ± 80.0001
 Δ10.4 ± 8.14.3 ± 7.30.0001
VAC
 Rest0.45 ± 0.190.41 ± 0.180.16
 Post-ex0.25 ± 0.090.32 ± 0.140.0004
 Δ−0.21 ± 0.17−0.09 ± 0.150.0001
ELVI, mm Hg/ml/m2
 Rest10.0 ± 5.210.8 ± 4.70.27
 Post-ex20.8 ± 12.116.9 ± 10.20.02
 Δ10.8± 8.36.1 ± 8.30.0002
EAI, mm Hg/ml/m2
 Rest3.7 ± 0.94.0 ± 1.00.07
 Post-ex4.3 ± 1.14.5 ± 1.20.27
 Δ0.6 ± 0.70.5 ± 0.90.59

Values are mean ± SD.

A = late diastolic mitral flow velocity; CO = cardiac output; Δ = value post-exercise minus value at rest; DT = deceleration time of E-wave; E = peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity; e′ = peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; EAI = effective arterial elastance index; ELVI = left ventricular end-systolic elastance index; GLS = global longitudinal strain; LVEDVI = left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVI = left ventricular end-systolic volume index; post-ex = post exercise; SVI = stroke volume; VAC = ventriculo-arterial coupling.