Table 2

ECHO Findings Among Incident HD Patients (N = 567) With SHD Based on ECHO Criteria Proposed by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

Time to ECHO
 Prior to HD initiation, days (n = 330)3 (1–9)
 Following HD initiation, days (n = 237)15 (3–48)
 Absolute time between dialysis initiation and ECHO0 (−4 to 8)
SHD subgroups
 LV size (n = 497)
 LV hypertrophy present by LVM/m2 measurement242 (49)
 LVM/m2 overall, g/m2118 (99–144)
 LVM/m2 women, g/m2115 (95–136)
 LVM/m2 men, g/m2123 (103–148)
 LV hypertrophy present by LVM/height2.7 measurement351 (71)
 LVM/height2.7 overall, g/m2.757 (47–68)
 LVM/height2.7 women, g/m2.759 (48–71)
 LVM/height2.7 men, g/m2.755 (46–67)
LV volume index (n = 71)
 LV volume index diastole >86 or systole >37 ml/m251 (72)
 LV volume index diastole, ml/m276 (62–96)
 LV volume index systole, ml/m248 (33–67)
LA size (n = 444)
 LA enlargement present359 (81)
 LA volume index, ml/m243 (34–54)
Diastolic function (n = 448)
 Diastolic dysfunction present350 (78)
Valvular heart disease (n = 531)
 ≥Moderate mitral or aortic valve dysfunction present86 (16)
 ≥Moderate mitral valve dysfunction present70 (13)
 ≥Moderate mitral stenosis3 (1)
 ≥Moderate mitral regurgitation68 (13)
 ≥Moderate aortic valve dysfunction present21 (4)
 ≥Moderate aortic stenosis15 (3)
 ≥Moderate aortic regurgitation6 (1)
Quantitaive RV systolic function (n = 186)
 S′ <9.5 cm/s52 (28)
 S′, cm/s12 (9–16)
Semiquantitative RV systolic function (n = 533)
 RV systolic dysfunction present180 (34)
LVEF (n = 562)
 LVEF ≤45%180 (32)
Regional wall motion of LV (n = 483)
 RWMA present242 (50)
Number of SHD variables present3.0 ± 1.7
3 (2–4)
 ≥3 SHD abnormalities present306 (54)

Values are median (interquartile range), n (%), or mean ± SD. LV hypertrophy is calculated by 2 measurements: LV mass index >110 g/m2 for women and >130 g/m2 for men or LV mass index >47 g/m2.7 for women and >50 g/m2.7 for men.

HD = hemodialysis; IQR = interquartile range; LA = left atrial; LV = left ventricle; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVMI = left ventricular mass index; RV = right ventricle; RWMA = regional wall motion abnormality abnormality; S′ = systolic lateral tricuspid annulus velocity (S′) was measured by tissue Doppler in the apical four-chamber view; SHD = structural heart disease.