Table 1

Comparison of Baseline Patient Characteristics and ECHO Findings

Comparison Group Without ECHOPatients Included in the Study
No ECHO
(n = 533)
ECHO Total
(n = 654)
ECHO-No SHD
(n = 87)
ECHO-SHD
(n = 567)
Age, yrs63.9 ± 17.365.6 ± 16.158.5 ± 16.466.7 ± 15.8
67.8 (52.4–77.2)68.4 (56.2–78.5)58.3 (48.5–69.6)69.7 (57.7–78.8)
 Age ≥75173 (32)218 (33)16 (18)202 (36)
Demographics
 Male335 (63)390 (60)38 (44)226 (40)
 Female198 (37)264 (40)49 (56)341 (60)
 Caucasian462 (87)582 (89)79 (91)503 (89)
 Diabetes mellitus275 (52)328 (50)39 (45)289 (51)
 Coronary artery disease254 (48)369 (56)30 (34)339 (60)
 HF191 (36)366 (56)23 (26)343 (60)
 Previous outpatient nephrology evaluation437 (82)407 (62)51 (59)356 (63)
Charlson comorbidity score7.3 ± 3.57.5 ± 3.46.1 ± 3.47.7 ± 3.3
7.0 (5.0–10.0)8.0 (5.0–10.0)6.0 (3.0–8.0)8.0 (5.0–10.0)
 Charlson score ≥8240 (45%)341 (52%)27 (31%)314 (55%)
ESRD cause
 Diabetes mellitus180 (34)192 (29)17 (20)175 (31)
 Hypertension100 (19)99 (15)11 (13)88 (16)
 Glomerulonephritis/tubulointerstitial nephritis73 (14)79 (12)13 (15)66 (12)
 Polycystic kidney disease15 (3)12 (2)1 (1)11 (2)
 Refractory acute tubular necrosis9 (2)54 (8)9 (10)43 (8)
 Failing kidney transplant35 (7)38 (6)11 (13)27 (5)
 Other/unknown104 (20)182 (28)25 (29)157 (28)
First dialysis access used
 Noncuffed, temporary catheter106 (20)256 (39)42 (48)214 (38)
 Cuffed tunneled catheter296 (56)318 (49)36 (41)282 (50)
 Arteriovenous fistula/graft130 (24)80 (12)9 (10)71 (13)
AVF/AVG present at first dialysis210 (39)132 (20)16 (18)116 (20)
Hemodialysis start year
 <2005198 (37)209 (32)39 (45)170 (30)#
 ≥2005335 (63)445 (68)48 (55)397 (70)
ECHO time period
 Days from dialysis start to ECHO examination0.0 (−4.0 to 9.0)2.0 (−3.0 to 36.0)0.0 (−4.0 to 8.0)
K-M mortality estimate (number of events)
 6 months8% (41)17% (108)16% (14)17% (94)
 3 yrs38% (190)46% (286)45% (38)46% (248)
 5 yrs54% (253)62% (363)56% (46)63% (317)

Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. Data compare baseline patient characteristics and ECHO findings for patients without ECHO (No ECHO), with ECHO and no SHD (ECHO-No SHD), and with ECHO and SHD (ECHO-SHD) among incident HD patients. Statistical comparison of Echo-No SHD and Echo-SHD groups.

AVF = arteriovenous fistula; AVG = arteriovenous graft; Charlson score = Charlson comorbidity index score; ECHO = echocardiogram; HF = heart failure; ICU = intensive care unit; K-M = Kaplan-Meier; RRT = renal replacement therapy; SD = standard deviation; SHD = structural heart disease.

  • p < 0.001.

  • # p < 0.05 for ≥1 SHD versus No SHD.