Table 1

Association Between Clinical Characteristics and Participation in Endurance Athletics

Overall
(N = 87)
Endurance Athlete (n = 56)Not Endurance Athlete (n = 31)p Value
Male46 (53)32 (57)14 (45)NS
Proband36 (41)28 (50)8 (26)0.028
Age at interview, yrs44 ± 1842 ± 1545 ± 22NS
Presentation
 Age at clinical presentation, yrs35 ± 1732 ± 1438 ± 20NS
 Type of presentation
  Symptomatic presentation44 (51)36 (64)8 (26)0.002
  Resuscitated SCD3 (3)2(4)1 (3)
  Asymptomatic40 (46)18 (45)22 (71)
 Sustained VT/VF at presentation26 (30)18 (32)8 (26)NS
 Stage C HF at presentation0 (0)0(0)0(0)NS
 Age at first symptom, yrs32 ± 1530 ± 1341 ± 210.05
Task Force Criteria at LFU, yes56 (64)46 (82)11 (35)<0.001
 Structural alterations30 (35) major
10 (12) minor
24 (44) major
8 (15) minor
6 (20) major
2 (7) minor
0.021
 Repolarization abnormalities43 (50) major
15 (17) minor
34 (62) major
12 (22) minor
9 (29) major
3 (10) minor
<0.001
 Depolarization abnormalities5 (6) major
35 (41) minor
5 (9) major
28 (51) minor
0 (0) major
7 (23) minor
0.003
 Arrhythmias17 (21) major
30 (36) minor
13 (24) major
24 (44) minor
4 (14) major
6 (21) minor
0.011
 Family history/genetics87 (100) major56 (100) major31 (100) major1.000
VT/VF at LFU (yes)39 (45)31 (55)8 (26)0.008
 Type of arrhythmic event
  Sustained VT29 (74)22 (71)7 (88)NS
  Aborted SCD/resuscitated SCD3 (18)2 (6)1 (12)
  Appropriate ICD therapy7 (8)7 (23)0 (0)
 Activity at first VT/VF
  Exercise25 (64)21 (68)4 (50)NS
  Daily activity10 (26)6 (19)4 (50)
  At rest4 (10)4 (13)0 (0)
 Age first VT/VF, yrs33 ± 1232 ± 1137 ± 16NS
Stage C heart failure at LFU (yes)10 (12)10 (18)0 (0)0.012
Transplant at LFU2 (2)2 (4)0 (0)NS

Values are n (%) or mean ± SD.

HF = heart failure; LFU = last clinical follow-up; SCD = sudden cardiac death; VT/VF = composite measure of the occurrence of spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, aborted SCD, SCD, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator intervention for a ventricular arrhythmia.

  • One 11-year-old participant had no electrocardiogram available for review. Therefore, only 86 individuals were characterized for repolarization and depolarization abnormalities.

  • Three individuals had Holter monitoring performed, noting that premature ventricular complexes were present, but no count was provided, so these individuals were not included in the arrhythmias category.