Table 1

Baseline Clinical Characteristics

Entire Cohort
(N = 32,906)
By Bleeding StatusBy MI Status
Spontaneous Bleed
(n = 530)
No Spontaneous Bleed
(n = 32,376)
p ValueSpontaneous MI
(n = 991)
No Spontaneous MI
(n = 31,915)
p Value
Demographics
 Age, yrs64.0 ± 11.570.1 ± 10.763.9 ± 11.5<0.00167.4 ± 11.563.9 ± 11.5<0.001
 Sex
 Female9,843 (29.9)206 (38.9)9,637 (29.8)<0.001366 (36.9)9,477 (29.7)<0.001
 Race
 White24,922 (75.7)417 (78.7)24,505 (75.7)<0.05735 (74.2)24,187 (75.8)<0.05
 African American1,847 (5.6)27 (5.1)1,820 (5.6)77 (7.8)1,770 (5.5)
 Asian/Pacific Islander3,090 (9.4)55 (10.4)3,035 (9.4)92 (9.3)2,998 (9.4)
 All others3,047 (9.3)31 (5.8)3,016 (9.3)87 (8.8)2,960 (9.3)
 Hispanic ethnicity3,954 (12.0)70 (13.2)3,884 (12.0)0.40141 (14.2)3,813 (11.9)<0.05
Comorbidities
 Smoker10,656 (32.4)203 (38.3)10,453 (32.3)<0.01331 (33.4)10,325 (32.4)0.49
 Cardiovascular history and risk factors
 Acute myocardial infarction14,957 (45.5)257 (48.5)14,700 (45.4)0.16546 (55.1)14,411 (45.2)<0.001
 Unstable angina7,570 (23.0)111 (32.2)6,804 (30.8)0.60285 (28.8)7,285 (22.8)<0.001
 Hospitalized ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack785 (2.4)20 (3.8)765 (2.4)<0.0529 (2.9)756 (2.4)0.26
 Peripheral arterial disease938 (2.9)31 (5.8)907 (2.8)<0.00162 (6.3)876 (2.7)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter2,133 (6.5)95 (17.9)2,038 (6.3)<0.00196 (9.7)2,037 (6.4)<0.001
 Heart failure1,847 (5.6)70 (13.2)1,777 (5.5)<0.001125 (12.6)1,722 (5.4)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus8,773 (26.7)180 (34.0)8,593 (26.5)<0.001422 (42.6)8,351 (26.2)<0.001
 Hypertension16,754 (50.9)367 (69.2)16,387 (50.6)<0.001640 (64.6)16,114 (50.5)<0.001
 Dyslipidemia25,529 (77.6)426 (80.4)25,103 (77.5)0.12806 (81.3)24,723 (77.5)<0.01
 Other medical history
 Chronic lung disease5,601 (17.0)137 (25.8)5.464 (16.9)<0.001217 (21.9)5,384 (16.9)<0.001
 Depression2,883 (8.8)64 (12.1)2,819 (8.7)<0.0199 (10.0)2,784 (8.7)0.16
 Systemic cancer2,735 (8.3)89 (16.8)2.646 (8.2)<0.001116 (11.7)2,619 (8.2)<0.001
 Previous history of hospitalized bleed471 (1.4)42 (7.9)429 (1.3)<0.00123 (2.3)448 (1.4)<0.05
Baseline medication use, 120 days prior to or on index date§
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor9,457 (28.7)209 (39.4)9,248 (28.6)<0.001388 (39.2)9,069 (28.4)<0.001
 Angiotensin II receptor blocker1,913 (5.8)42 (7.9)1,871 (5.8)<0.0577 (7.8)1,836 (5.8)<0.01
 Diuretic9,430 (28.7)227 (42.8)9,203 (28.4)<0.001376 (37.9)9,054 (28.4)<0.001
 Beta-blocker14,039 (42.7)259 (48.9)13,780 (42.6)<0.01525 (53.0)13,514 (42.3)<0.001
 Aldosterone receptor antagonist345 (1.0)14 (2.6)331 (1.0)<0.00116 (1.6)329 (1.0)0.08
 Nitrates6,293 (19.1)133 (25.1)6,160 (19.0)<0.001301 (30.4)5,992 (18.8)<0.001
 Digoxin1,181 (3.6)47 (8.9)1,134 (3.5)<0.00161 (6.2)1,120 (3.5)<0.001
 Calcium-channel blocker6,657 (20.2)155 (29.2)6,502 (20.1)<0.001294 (29.7)6,363 (19.9)<0.001
 Statins12,973 (39.4)253 (47.7)12,720 (39.3)<0.001474 (47.8)12,499 (39.2)<0.001
 Other lipid-lowering agent1,545 (4.7)26 (4.9)1,519 (4.7)0.8244 (4.4)1,501 (4.7)0.70
 Anti-inflammatory drugs5,900 (17.9)89 (16.8)5,811 (17.9)0.49171 (17.3)5,729 (18.0)0.57
 Antiplatelet agents
 Other antiplatelet agents1,512 (4.6)33 (6.2)1,479 (4.6)0.0775 (7.6)1,437 (4.5)<0.001
 Warfarin1,361 (4.1)69 (13.0)1,292 (4.0)<0.00167 (6.8)1,294 (4.1)<0.001
 Diabetes medications6,601 (20.1)131 (24.7)6,470 (20.0)<0.01350 (35.3)6,251 (19.6)<0.001
Baseline laboratory values
 Hemoglobin, g/dl
 ≥13.017,297 (52.6)257 (48.5)17,040 (52.6)<0.001457 (46.1)16,840 (52.8)<0.001
 10.0–12.95,130 (15.6)159 (30.0)4,971 (15.4)264 (26.6)4,866 (15.3)
 <10.0323 (1.0)13 (2.5)310 (0.9)26 (2.6)297 (0.9)
 Unknown10,156 (30.9)101 (19.1)10,055 (31.1)244 (24.6)9,912 (31.1)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate, ml/min/1.73 m2
 ≥6015,216 (46.2)198 (37.4)15,018 (46.4)<0.001366 (36.9)14,850 (46.5)<0.001
 45–595,557 (16.9)123 (23.2)5,434 (16.8)218 (22.0)5,339 (16.7)
 <45, not on dialysis3,114 (9.5)110 (20.8)3004 (9.3)177 (17.9)2,937 (9.2)
 On dialysis321 (1.0)15 (2.8)306 (0.9)40 (4.0)281 (0.9)
 Unknown8,698 (26.4)84 (15.8)8,614 (26.6)190 (19.2)8,508 (26.7)

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

  • Spontaneous bleeds or myocardial infarctions (MIs) were defined as bleeds or MIs requiring hospitalization between days 7 and 365 after discharge from the index hospitalization for percutaneous coronary intervention.

  • Comparison between patients who had a spontaneous bleed and those who did not.

  • Comparison between patients who had a spontaneous MI and those who did not.

  • § This refers to drug use prior to the index procedure. Longitudinal medication use after the index procedure was incorporated into the model as a time-updated covariate.