Table 8

Selected Causes of Elevated Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations

Cardiac
  • Heart failure, including RV syndromes

  • Acute coronary syndrome

  • Heart muscle disease, including LVH

  • Valvular heart disease

  • Pericardial disease

  • Atrial fibrillation

  • Myocarditis

  • Cardiac surgery

  • Cardioversion

Noncardiac
  • Advancing age

  • Anemia

  • Renal failure

  • Pulmonary: obstructive sleep apnea, severe pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension

  • Critical illness

  • Bacterial sepsis

  • Severe burns

  • Toxic-metabolic insults, including cancer chemotherapy and envenomation

LVH indicates left ventricular hypertrophy; and RV, right ventricular.