Table 9

Recommendations for Biomarkers in HF

Biomarker, ApplicationSettingCORLOEReferences
Natriuretic peptides
 Diagnosis or exclusion of HFAmbulatory, AcuteIA212,217–223,245–250
 Prognosis of HFAmbulatory, AcuteIA222,224–229,248,251–258
 Achieve GDMTAmbulatoryIIaB230–237
 Guidance for acutely decompensated HF therapyAcuteIIbC259,260
Biomarkers of myocardial injury
 Additive risk stratificationAcute, AmbulatoryIA238–241,248,253,256–267
Biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis
 Additive risk stratificationAmbulatoryIIbB242–244
AcuteIIbA248,253,256,258–260,262,264–267

COR indicates Class of Recommendation; GDMT, guideline-directed medical therapy; HF, heart failure; and LOE, Level of Evidence.