Table 18

Medical Therapy for Stage C HFrEF: Magnitude of Benefit Demonstrated in RCTs

GDMTRR Reduction in Mortality (%)NNT for Mortality Reduction (Standardized to 36 mo)RR Reduction in HF Hospitalizations (%)
ACE inhibitor or ARB172631
Beta blocker34941
Aldosterone antagonist30635
Hydralazine/nitrate43733

Adapted with permission from Fonarow et al. (483).

ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker; GDMT, guideline-directed medical therapy; HF, heart failure; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; NNT, number needed to treat; RCTs, randomized controlled trials; and RR, relative risk.