Table 3

Multivariable Model of Factors Associated With the Utilization of ECV, PCV, or AF Ablation

FactorHR95% CIp Value
Age, HR for 10-year increase0.770.69–0.87<0.001
Region
 Asia/Pacific Islands0.130.06–0.27<0.001
 Eastern Europe0.680.50–0.92
 Latin America0.210.11–0.41
 North America1.110.80–1.53
 Western Europe1.00
Systolic BP, HR for 10-mm Hg increase0.860.78–0.94<0.001
Heart rate, HR for 10-beats/min increase
 Linear spline ≤800.820.72–0.930.001
 Linear spline ≥801.191.07–1.32
Diastolic BP, HR for 10 mm Hg increase
 Linear spline ≤751.701.24–2.350.004
 Linear spline ≥750.840.67–1.06
Type of AF
 Persistent1.00<0.001
 Paroxysmal2.722.14–3.47
 New3.191.66–6.11
Sotalol3.632.49–5.27<0.001
Amiodarone2.651.96–3.60<0.001
Other antiarrhythmic drugs2.851.87–4.34<0.001
Digoxin0.620.47–0.82<0.001
Calcium channel blocker1.381.08–1.760.009
Thienopyridine2.021.10–3.710.024
Beta blocker1.311.00–1.710.046

AF = atrial fibrillation; BP = blood pressure; CI = confidence interval; ECV = electrical cardioversion; HR = hazard ratio; PCV = pharmacologic cardioversion.