Table 4

Multivariable Model of Factors Associated With ECV or PCV

FactorHR95% CIp Value
Age, HR for 10-year increase0.790.69–0.90<0.001
Region
 Asia/Pacific Islands0.120.05–0.27<0.001
 Eastern Europe0.750.54–1.05
 Latin America0.160.07–0.37
 North America1.090.76–1.55
 Western Europe1.00
Heart rate, HR for 10-beats/min increase
 Linear spline ≤800.810.71–0.940.003
 Linear spline ≥801.181.06–1.32
Systolic BP, HR for 10-mm Hg increase0.850.77–0.93<0.001
Diastolic BP, HR for 10-mm Hg increase1.150.98–1.340.088
Type of AF
 Persistent1.00<0.001
 Paroxysmal3.052.34–3.98
 New3.151.52–6.52
Sotalol3.532.34–5.33<0.001
Amiodarone2.411.73–3.35<0.001
Other antiarrhythmic drugs2.981.93–4.61<0.001
Digoxin0.570.42–0.78<0.001
Calcium channel blocker1.431.10–1.860.007

AF = atrial fibrillation; BP = blood pressure; CI = confidence interval; HR = hazard ratio. ECV = electrical cardioversion; PCV = pharmacologic cardioversion.