Table 3

Risk For All-Cause Hospital Admission, by Baseline Characteristic

CharacteristicBivariate ModelMultivariate Model
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)p ValueHazard Ratio (95% CI)p Value
Age group
 65–<75 yrsReferenceReference
 75–<85 yrs1.05 (0.86 to −1.28)0.6660.96 (0.81 to 1.15)0.655
 ≥85 yrs1.33 (1.04 to −1.71)0.0221.20 (0.94 to 1.53)0.139
Female0.98 (0.83 to −1.14)0.7650.89 (0.77 to 1.03)0.124
Nonwhite race1.09 (0.86 to −1.39)0.475
Education <12th grade1.18 (1.00 to −1.40)0.0481.12 (0.96 to 1.31)0.146
BMI group
 <18 kg/m21.17 (0.76 to −1.81)0.470
 18–<25 kg/m2Reference
 25–<30 kg/m20.93 (0.78 to −1.10)0.393
 ≥30 kg/m21.05 (0.83 to −1.34)0.675
Heart failure status
 Ejection fraction <45%1.32 (1.07 to −1.62)0.0101.25 (1.04 to 1.51)0.019
 NYHA functional class III/IV1.37 (1.14 to −1.65)<0.0011.32 (1.11 to 1.57)0.001
 Not taking ACE inhibitor1.05 (0.87 to −1.27)0.616
 Not taking beta-blocker1.23 (0.98 to −1.55)0.0761.21 (0.99 to 1.46)0.059
Comorbid conditions
 Diabetes mellitus1.42 (1.17 to −1.74)<0.0011.36 (1.13 to 1.64)0.001
 Chronic kidney disease1.31 (1.11 to 1.55)0.0021.32 (1.14 to 1.53)<0.001
 Stroke1.27 (1.03 to −1.56)0.0241.15 (0.95 to 1.38)0.149
 COPD1.16 (0.94 to −1.44)0.164
 Anemia1.16 (0.92 to −1.45)0.210
 Coronary artery disease1.09 (0.92 to 1.29)0.317
Geriatric conditions
 Slow gait1.49 (1.24 to −1.80)<0.0011.28 (1.06 to 1.55)0.010
 Cognitive impairment1.33 (1.14 to −1.56)<0.001
 Depression1.33 (1.13 to −1.56)<0.0011.23 (1.05 to 1.43)0.010
 Weak grip1.21 (1.02 to 1.44)0.0301.19 (1.00 to 1.42)0.050

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • Model is adjusted for year of heart failure diagnosis (1990 to 1999).