Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Cleveland Clinic Cohort

Total (N = 1,318)Admission Chloride (mEq/l)p Value
<99 (n = 456)99 to 103 (n = 497)>103 (n = 365)
Age, yrs68.7 (59.1 to 77.2)67.9 (59.2 to 76.2)68.4 (58.7 to 77.3)69.5 (60.1 to 78.2)0.09
Male70.071.969.867.70.19
Ischemic cardiomyopathy34.833.638.231.50.64
LVEF, % (n = 1,068)27 (19 to 45)25 (15 to 40)25 (20 to 45)34 (20 to 50)<0.001
SBP, mm Hg118 (105 to 137)111 (102 to 128)120 (105 to 137)127 (113 to 144)<0.001
Beta-blocker84.980.388.386.00.01
RAS blocker59.252.262.263.8<0.001
MRA36.343.436.028.0<0.001
Sodium, mEq/l137 (135 to 140)134 (131 to 137)138 (136 to 149)138 (138 to 142)<0.001
Bicarbonate, mEq/l25 (22 to 27)27 (24 to 30)25 (23 to 27)23 (21 to 25)<0.001
BUN, mg/dl27 (19 to 40)31 (22 to 47)27 (19 to 38)25 (18 to 34)<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.28 (0.99 to 1.69)1.33 (1.04 to 1.77)1.29 (0.96 to 1.71)1.20 (0.98 to 1.60)0.004
NT-proBNP, pg/ml (n = 481)4,817 (2,415 to 9,536)5,793 (3,133 to 10,418)4,268 (2,180 to 9,175)4,684 (2,428 to 8,644)0.044
Hemoglobin, g/dl11.6 (10.1 to 13.1)11.6 (10.2 to 13.2)11.7 (10.2 to 13.2)11.3 (9.7 to 12.7)0.003
Total bilirubin, mg/dl0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)0.8 (0.5 to 1.1)<0.001
Length of stay, days8.7 (5.0 to 16.7)9.7 (5.5 to 19.4)9.0 (4.9 to 17.8)7.9 (4.9 to 14.1)<0.001
ΔWeight during admission, kg-2.5 (-6.0 to 0.1)-2.9 (-6.8 to 0.0)-2.8 (-6.3 to 0.0)-1.5 (-4.4 to 0.3)<0.001

Values are median (interquartile range) or %.

BUN = blood urea nitrogen; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; MRA = mineralocorticoid antagonist; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide; RAS = renin-angiotensin system; SBP = systolic blood pressure.

  • p value for the Jonckheere-Terstra or Cuzick tests of trend.