Table 2

Baseline Characteristics of the University of Pennsylvania Cohort

Total (N = 876)Admission Chloride (mEq/l)p Value
<101 (n = 253)101 to 104 (n = 262)>104 (n = 361)
Age, yrs62.9 (51.4 to 74.3)64.9 (53.8 to 74.8)59.2 (48.3 to 72.7)64.5 (52.3 to 75.6)0.67
Male54.360.159.246.80.001
Ischemic cardiomyopathy24.233.616.823.00.01
LVEF, %27.5 (15 to 47.5)27.5 (15 to 50)25 (15 to 45)30 (15 to 47.5)0.48
SBP, mm Hg135 (115 to 158)120 (102 to 143)138 (118 to 161)145 (126 to 166)<0.001
Beta-blocker67.471.566.465.10.10
RAS blocker61.260.963.759.60.67
MRA15.122.514.110.5<0.001
Sodium, mEq/l139 (137 to 141)136 (133 to 139)139 (137 to 141)141 (139 to 142)<0.001
Bicarbonate, mEq/l25 (23 to 28)28 (25 to 31)26 (24 to 28)24 (21 to 26)<0.001
BUN, mg/dl22 (15 to 34)30 (18 to 48)20.5 (15 to 27)21 (14 to 33)<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)1.40 (1.0 to 1.8)1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)0.19
BNP, pg/ml1,314 (673 to 2,435)1,372 (715 to 2,845)1,241 (649 to 2,113)1,319 (671 to 2,389)0.86
Hemoglobin, g/dl12.3 (10.7 to 13.6)12.2 (10.6 to 13.7)12.6 (11.0 to 13.9)12.1 (10.6 to 13.5)0.44
Total bilirubin, mg/dl0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.9 (0.6 to 1.7)0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)0.7 (0.4 to 1.0)<0.001
Length of stay, days5 (4 to 8)6 (4 to 9)5 (4 to 8)5 (4 to 7)<0.001
ΔWeight during admission, kg-3.1 (-5.9 to 0.8)-2.6 (-5.9 to 0.7)-3.2 (-6.4 to 0.9)-3.4 (-5.4 to 0.7)0.55

Values are median (interquartile range) or %.

BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • p value for the Jonckheere-Terstra or Cuzick tests of trend.