Table 1

Characteristics of the Study Participants—Inflammatory and Coagulatory Parameters

TotalLow Risk (CRP <1.0 mg/l)Medium Risk (CRP 1.0–2.9 mg/l)High Risk (CRP ≥3.0 mg/l)p Value
n50201713
CRP (mg/l)1.36 (0.51–3.13)0.42 (0.29–0.59)2.00 (1.32–2.51)6.17 (4.66–7.85)
Age (yrs)55.4 ± 12.255.9 ± 11.756.8 ± 13.952.6 ± 10.90.638*
Male gender (%)90.095.094.176.90.188
Smoker (%)50.050.047.153.80.934
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)124.8 ± 19.6127.0 ± 21.3125.0 ± 20.3121.2 ± 16.70.712*
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)79.2 ± 8.479.4 ± 9.278.8 ± 7.079.6 ± 9.50.967*
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.9 ± 4.025.7 ± 3.226.5 ± 2.529.2 ± 5.70.045*
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)187.0 ± 26.3182.2 ± 24.7188.5 ± 23.9192.4 ± 31.80.538*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)114.6 ± 25.1110.9 ± 21.4115.1 ± 25.6119.9 ± 30.50.606*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)45.8 ± 10.248.6 ± 11.445.3 ± 10.142.3 ± 7.60.220*
Triglycerides (mg/dl)137.5 ± 75.9114.5 ± 51.1154.8 ± 108.8150.15 ± 46.30.219*
Peak creatine kinase (U/l)900.1 ± 848.2847.2 ± 596.51,144.18 ± 1,136.0689.5 ± 679.30.342*
Diabetes (%)20.010.029.423.10.322
Family history of CAD (%)42.055.029.438.50.278
Statins (%)54.060.052.946.20.734
Beta-blockers (%)66.060.076.561.50.531
TNF-alpha (ng/ml)6.0 (5.0–9.4)7.8 (5.3–11.5)6.0 (5.0–10.4)6.0 (5.0–7.0)0.194†
sICAM (ng/ml)75.8 (60.65–88.95)66.9 (57.0–78.7)71.5 (61.6–85.8)92.2 (87.2–112.6)< 0.001†
F1+2 (nmol/l)0.85 (0.70–1.20)0.80 (0.60–0.85)0.9 (0.70–1.70)1.20 (0.75–1.40)0.025†

Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or percentage. Statistical differences were determined by analysis of variance (*) or by the Kruskal-Wallis test (†). All patients were treated with aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers.

CAD = coronary artery disease; CRP = C-reactive protein; F1+2 = prothrombin fragment F1+2; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; sICAM = soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.