Table 1

Clinical Characteristics and Exercise Parameters of the Study and the Control Populations

Study Population(n = 247)Control Population(n = 2,304)p Value
Age (yrs)77 (76,78)60 (52,67)< 0.0001
Gender
 Male139 (56%)1,341 (58%)NS
 Female108 (44%)963 (42%)
Risk factors
 Current cigarette smoking7 (3%)293 (13%)< 0.0001
 Diabetes
 On insulin11 (4%)78 (3%)NS
 Not on insulin18 (7%)155 (7%)
 Hypertension132 (53%)1,021 (44%)0.006
 Hypercholesterolemia94 (38%)1,117 (48%)0.002
 Previous MI42 (17%)260 (11%)0.008
 ECG anterior Q-wave13 (5%)63 (3%)0.026
 Chest pain
 Typical angina125 (51%)746(32%)1,444(63%)114(5%)]
 Atypical angina119 (48%)<0.0001
 Noncardiac pain3 (1%)
Antianginal medications
 Beta-blockers71 (29%)544 (24%)NS
 Long-acting nitrates76 (31%)370 (16%)< 0.0001
 Calcium channel blockers109 (44%)743 (32%)0.0002
Resting ST-T ECG abnormalities96 (39%)737 (32%)0.028
Exercise protocol
 Bruce199 (81%)2,226(97%)78(3%)]< 0.0001
 Naughton48 (19%)
Peak heart rate (beats/min)120 (108, 136)142 (125, 158)< 0.0001
Peak blood pressure (mm Hg)172 (154, 190)180 (160, 196)< 0.0001
Peak rate-pressure product20,700 (16,650, 24,480)25,500 (21,090, 29,410)< 0.0001
Exercise duration (min)5.1 (3.7, 6.8)7.8 (6.0, 9.5)< 0.0001
Exercise angina75 (30%)559 (24%)NS
 Angina index = 146 (18%)361 (16%)
 Angina index = 229 (12%)198 (9%)
Magnitude of ST deviation (mm)0 (0, 1.0)0 (0, 1.0)NS
Duke treadmill score2.3 (–3.2, 5.0)5.5 (0.5, 8.4)< 0.0001

Data other than numbers of patients are presented as median value with 25th, 75th percentile in parentheses.

ECG = electrocardiogram; MI = myocardial infarction.