Table 2

Clinical Events in Patients Not Treated With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A) Mortality and Morbidity End Points and B) Total Investigator-Assessed Hospital Admissions

AValsartan Group (n = 185)Placebo Group (n = 181)RR*95% CI*p Value
Primary end points
All-cause mortality32 (17.3%)49 (27.1%)0.670.42–1.060.017
Mortality/morbidity46 (24.9%)77 (42.5%)0.560.39–0.81< 0.001
Secondary mortality/morbidity endpoints (first occurrence)
Cardiovascular deaths29 (15.7%)40 (22.1%)0.760.46–1.240.074
Nonfatal morbid event24 (13.0%)49 (27.1%)0.460.28–0.76< 0.001
Sudden death with resuscitation1 (0.5%)2 (1.1%)0.460.04–5.250.529
Therapy for HF01 (0.6%)
Hospital admission for HF24 (13.0%)48 (26.5%)0.470.29–0.78< 0.001
BValsartanPlaceboDiff.§% Diff.p Value
Hospitalization cause
All-cause199262−63−24.00.260
HF51117−66−56.40.010
Non–HF14814532.10.567

HF = heart failure.

  • * Risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained using Cox regression, adjusting for New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular ejection fraction baseline beta-blocker usage, etiology, and age group.

  • Based on log-rank tests.

  • Statistically significant at p < 0.05.

  • § Difference (valsartan − placebo); % Diff = 100 × Diff/placebo.

  • Based on the Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test for the number of hospital admissions stratified by beta-blocker usage and NYHA class, using modified ridit scores.